My Norwegian room-mate says grønnsaker literally means "green stuff". I think that's neat.
Yes, "grønn" means "green" and "sak" means "thing" or "case" (as in "case study", not as "box"). Apparently the phrase "for the sake of" might be from Old Norse.
"Frukt" and "fruit" are used as mass nouns here, which is why they don't take an article.
If "frukt" were referring to a single fruit, and part of a full sentence as Bronzdragon said, then it would indeed require an article.
Got it. I've never noticed before that the word "fruit" without "s" on the end can also be plural.
In a real sentence, yes. This is a sentence fragment though, not a full sentence.