I'm just wondering about the tone of voice for asking questions. It seems as though her voice didn't have that questioning tone. Does Irish differ from English as far as the tone doesn't indicate question-sentences? I hope you know what I mean. I sometimes have difficulties expressing myself with the written word. I'm actually hoping that, as a by-product, that learning Irish can help with my English grammar.
Don't confuse stress with pitch, though. Upspeak usually refers to a habit of speaking, common in younger Anglophones, where the pitch is raised at the end of the sentence, as if asking for confirmation, you know? At its worst, upspeak can affect every sentence a person says, right?
As I understand it it, Irish doesn't use a raised pitch at the end of questions to indicate it's a question. The particles 'An' or "Ar" etc perform that function. But that's just what I've read.
I've tried to note how the speaker here does it. But it's better to observe longer utterances in context, e. g. on TV.
Okay, just saw this after I left my previous comment. Why isn't the course teaching us this, instead of "Do you cut the shirt?" as I don't think I've ever phrased a question like that in my life, except in cases like "do you like..." "do you play..." a combination of "are you" "will you" questions and phrases would be far more useful as they are much more commonly used :/
Do you take sugar in your tea? Do you stop in Mullingar when you're driving to Athlone? Do you read the Irish Independent? Do you prefer left twix or right twix? Do you cut your own grass? Do you eat soda farls? Do you play hurling? Do you watch the Late Late? Do you wear sneakers? Do you vote in council elections? Do you listen to Raidió RíRá? Do you do Duolingo every day? Do you drive a Toyota? Do you pay your bills on time? Do you fly with Ryanair? Do you put your left shoe or your right shoe on first? Do you grow roses in your garden?
Do you think that's enough?
Can someone please help me understand when to use the simple present in Irish. In English, you would normally use "are you cutting" for something happening right now and "do you cut" for something habitual. In Irish we have been introduced to the Bí forms for habitual activity and the progressive form that seems to work the same as in English. To an English speaker it would seem that there is no space left over for a third verb form. However Irish obviously works differently and I would like to get a feel for when it would be incorrect to use the habitual or the progressive form and the simple present would be the right choice in Irish.
The simple present has the same habitual aspect in Irish as it does in English. gearrann tú an léine expresses the habitual present, just as "you cut the shirt" does in English. The present progressive uses the verb bí, just as it does in English - tá tú ag gearradh na léine, the past progressive uses the past tense of * bí - bhí tú ag gearradh na léine, the future progressive uses the future tense of bí - beidh tú ag gearradh na léine*, etc.
Unlike English, the Irish verb bí also has an explicit habitual form, bíonn. It is precisely because Standard English doesn't have this "habitual be" that you have difficulty comprehending the use of this form. Most examples that help to explain this for English rely on explicit repetitive time markers (every day, on Tuesdays, etc), but they don't have to be explicit.
In the case of this specific phrase ag gearradh na léine, imagine a tailor who spends a day making a bespoke suit of clothes. He has been doing it for years, so that he follows a precise schedule. When the church bells ring out at noon "he is cutting the shirt". He doesn't cut the shirt because the bells ring ("when the bells ring, he cuts the shirt"). The bells don't ring because he is cutting the shirt ("when he cuts the shirt, the bells ring").
But that isn't really the "present progressive", which is used to express what is happening "right now", it's the habitual progressive - bíonn sé ag gearradh an léine.
Note that the simple present is the default way to express the present habitual in both English and Irish. The choice isn't between bíonn and the simple present, the choice is between tá and bíonn - English uses the present tense of "be" for both immediate actions ("he is cutting the shirt now") and habitual actions ("he is cutting the shirt when..."). Your focus should be less on "when is bíonn right?" and more on "when is tá wrong?".
Okay so up until this point I have not heard or learnt how to say things like "I am cutting the shirt" or "are you cutting the shirt?" which are things I would actually say. I dont think anyone would ever say "do you cut the shirt?" it would either by "are you cutting the shirt?" or "will you cut the shirt?". Are all these present tense translations literal? Do they mean the same as what I have mentioned above or am I missing something?