"Ils peuvent toujours."
Translation:They still can.
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In French does the adverb always go after the verb or are there exceptions? And when translate this into English does it matter where I place the verb or adverb: "They can still/always." They always/still can."
Generally speaking, adverbs stick to the word they modify.
If that word is a simple verb, the adverb comes just after.
- ils peuvent toujours
If it is a compound verb, the adverb comes just after the auxiliary.
- ils ont toujours pu
In a number of cases, you will want to emphasize the adverb with commas to set it off the sentence.
il réussit tout ce qu'il fait, toujours.
systématiquement, il réussit tout ce qu'il fait.
If the modified word is an adjective, the adverb comes in front of it.
- ce paysage est incroyablement beau.
But sometimes, "encore" means still, correct? In which context would you use the two differently?
But in English "They still can" and "They always can" are different in meaning. Does French make a similar distinction?
You can also express the meaning of "they still can" with "ils (le) peuvent encore", with no ambiguity on the meaning.
Toujours vs. encore: http://french.about.com/library/weekly/aa021601et.htm
Is there a way to audibly differentiate "ils peuvent toujours" and "il peut toujours"?
There is no “tous” (all) in the French sentence, but there is “toujours” (always). You have to translate the sentences, not interpret them.