"The girl likes the color pink."
Translation:Jenta liker fargen rosa.
There is a small difference.
The girl likes the colour pink. = She likes pink, doesn't matter what shade of pink.
The girl likes the pink colour. = She likes the specific pink in front of her / a specific shade of pink / this pink but not necessarily that pink.
Hard to explain, I hope this helps. (Should work the same way in Norwegian.)
I think the difference is in using rosa as an adjective vs a noun. If you say "den rosa fargen", it is clearly an adjective, meaning "the pink color". But the sentence is "The girl likes the color pink", which I believe is using "pink" as a noun. In other words, it is "The girl likes the color [known specifically as] pink". So we are talking about the color (fargen) known as "(noun)pink" (fargen rosa), as opposed to "the (adjective)pink color" (den rosa fargen).
But that brings up another question: If we are indeed using the color as a noun here, what if it was a color that was spelled differently as a noun, such as red. Would it be "Jenta liker fargen rødt"? (I ask because Google translate, known to be unreliable, claims it would be "Jenta liker fargen rød").
The word for "girl" is "jente". It is a (grammatically) feminine noun. To form the indefinite of a feminine noun, we use "ei". So "a girl" is "ei jente". To form the definite of a feminine noun, we add "a", so "the girl" is "jenta" (if the noun ends with "e" we'll most likely drop it before adding "a", since "jentea" would be awkward to say. JEN-teh-uh?). So that's all there is to it. "Jente" is "Girl" and "jenta" is "the girl".