Yes. "Coffee, tea or juice?" or "Do you want coffee?" would be closed-ended questions. "Do you like coffee?" could be either open-ended or closed-ended depending on the situation. If your at the breakfast table and the person asking is holding a pot of coffee... Or are you with a group of people discussing beverage choices... Ĉu indicates that the questioner is waiting for a quick, simple choice.
Romance language learners, don't think of mal- as of something bad: it just changes the word to its opposite meaning, e. g. fermi (to close) - malfermi (to open).
The reason it makes you think of Newspeak is that George Orwell was visiting his aunt in Paris, who was married to a famous Esperantist by the name of Lanti. They only spoke Esperanto at home and poor George was mostly in the dark, but that's where he got his idea for Newspeak.
I'm translating "Cxu" to "Is it so that ...?" in my head. It seems to fit most meanings for me. A statement becomes a yes/no-question, a statement containing "or" turns into a (slightly awkward) either-or-question and the phrase alone becomes "Is it so?" which is synonymous to "Really?".
Ĉu used by itself is translated as 'Really?' or 'Is that so?' When part of a sentence it's usually easier to translate as 'Do/does'. However, as this example shows, there isn't a direct English translation. Ĉu indicates that the questioner is looking for your choice, such as yes/no or good/bad or a/b/c.
The way Esperanto sentence structure works is that to turn something into a question, you just put a "ĉu" on the beginning of the sentence. It doesn't mean "is", it just doesn't really translate to anything, and all it does it changes the sentence. Look at the tips and notes for more information.
Also, when translating it's always good to use plausibility. For example, a sentence with two "is" in the same clause is a bit strange so just assume that it's wrong and see what you could possibly do to fix your translation.