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  5. "Estas malvarma tago."

"Estas malvarma tago."

Translation:It is a cold day.

May 28, 2015

61 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/olyglotED

How would you say "It is cold today?"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnnaLowenstein

You would say "Estas malvarme hodiaŭ". But that involves grammar which hasn't yet been explained. You're jumping ahead of yourself!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/neeeeeeeeek

For the original sentence, could it be a realistic posibility to use "Tago malvarmas" since "tago" is already a singular indefinite noun and "malvarmas" is a verb form of the adjective "malvarma". I mean this in the purposes of speech, as in is it natural sounding or not.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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I don't think it would convey the same thing. "It's a cold day" vs "A day is cold".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

Wouldn't that just be vocabulary? I don't see any grammatical difference.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnnaLowenstein

When you say "ĝi estas malvarma" en Esperanto, "ĝi" (it) refers to something specific which has already been named, e.g. the coffee, the water, the day, the room. In that case the word "malvarma" (cold) correctly has an adjective ending. But in English we also like to say things like "It's cold", "it's dark", "it's unfortunate that..." where "it" doesn't refer to anything specific, but is simply a way of introducing the phrase. In Esperanto, where there's no specific subject in expressions like that, you just say "estas..." and follow it up with an adverb, not an adjective: "estas malvarme", "estas mallume", "estas bedaŭrinde ke..." Adverbs are used a great deal in Esperanto, as you will discover. I hope you can follow this very brief explanation of a point which I suppose will come later in the course.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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I was looking at the difference between "estas malvarma tago" and "estas malvarma hodiaŭ".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnnaLowenstein

You wouldn't say "estas malvarma hodiaŭ". That's an incomplete phrase. It means "... is cold today". But you could say "estas malvarma tago". That means "it's a cold day."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

You wouldn't say "estas malvarma hodiaŭ". That's an incomplete phrase. It means "... is cold today".

But in your reply to OliverEdsforth:

How would you say "It is cold today?"

You said:

You would say "Estas malvarme hodiaŭ".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnnaLowenstein

Look more carefully at the endings of the words. (Endings are essential in Esperanto!) Malvarma is an adjective and malvarme is an adverb. But, as I said, you're rushing ahead to a more advanced lesson. Better to work through it step by step, or it will seem confusing.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tu.8zPhLD72zzoZN

I made that mistake also, so I looked it up.

"today " is "hodiaŭ"

Here are some dictionaries that I am finding useful: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16967/16967-h/16967-h.htm (English to Esperanto)

http://esperanto-panorama.net/vortaro/eoen.htm (Esperanto to English)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Chuggy370

Can we only drop the pronoun when it is it? If it would obviously be I or YOU, could we drop it then?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/amuzulo

Yes, only for it, not for other pronouns.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Chuggy370

Thanks :) Nice course, I love these sentences.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/u0434876

How does one differentiate between various words as the [mal] opposite form? For instance, how does one differentiate between "cool" versus "cold" for "malvarma"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnnaLowenstein

"Cool" would be "malvarmeta", which is "malvarma" with a diminutive added. If you wanted to make a scale of degrees of cold and heat, it would be "varmega, varma, varmeta, malvarmeta, malvarma, malvarmega". I hope that's enough to be going on with!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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Dankon multe!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CharlesDanielChr

So something like: Varmega = Scorching, blistering, Varma = Warm Varmeta = Lukewarm Malvarmeta = Tepid Malvarma = Cool Malvarmega = Freezing, Chilly


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnnaLowenstein

I would say "varma" was warm to hot, depending on the context.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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Ah, like in French.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/u0434876

Ditto on the Dankon!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ChristopherHaire

I know that the "mal" suffix is important for creating words like "cold" and "small" from Granda and Varma. But are there any words specifically for cold or small that aren't just the opposite of large or hot?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tu.8zPhLD72zzoZN

I looked up "small" and the dictionary still gave me "malgranda", but in another discussion someone gave the word for "tiny" as "eta" so I looked up "tiny", but what the dictionary gave me was "malgrandeta" so I must have misunderstood the person who was probably trying to explain the ending change for "tiny", but just to make sure I looked up "eta" and lo and behold it is listed as "tiny" - maybe it is short for the other one. It is an exception.
Even the word for "a dwarf" which is "malgrandegulo" is the opposite of the word for "a giant".

"Cold" came up as ""malvarma", but "to catch a cold" or "have a cold" use different words. "Frigid is "glaciiga" and "cool" is "malvarmeta"

Here see what you can find! If you go to a different intensity, there is usually another word; otherwise, it looks as though there would be no need for a thesaurus in Esperanto.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16967/16967-h/16967-h.htm

http://esperanto-panorama.net/vortaro/eoen.htm

HERE IS ANOTHER DICTIONARY: http://www.archive.org/stream/englishesperanto00oconuoft/englishesperanto00oconuoft_djvu.txt


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ChristopherHaire

Oh, wow, thanks for all the info! Here's a lingot for all your hard work researching that for me!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/alexhuggs

I think 'et' is a suffix. It makes something smaller. Dormo = house. Dormeto = hut or cottage. 'Eta' would be with the adjective. Someone may correct me though.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

I'd say you're 99% good there. The only thing I'd clarify is that affixes stack in an established sequence.

So you start with the root, whether "varm-" or "dorm-" or what have you, and then add the "-et-" suffix to indicate smallness, and then add either "-o" to indicate noun or "-a" to indicate adjective (or "-e" to indicate adverb, etc.)

And then you might add the suffix "-j" to indicate plural, and then you might add the suffix "-n" to indicate the accusative.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JamesTWils

Since this is a constructed language, I think the whole point is to have as few synonyms as possible.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MateoGarci

Would it be normal to say " la tago estas malvarma" instead?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

I think it's the same as in English, the difference between "It's a cold day" and "The day is cold."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/edson559871

Is it correct to say "estas malvarma tago hodiaû" to "it is a cold day today"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ONoh10

Touch the words before you give your answer. There are hints!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Axeous

Darn got it wrong figured it would be "it is cold today" I try to get these right by guessing. makes it easier to learn because when I can't guess it right it makes me sad, but when I guess it right I am really really happy.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JohnJuanGiovanni

Does Esperanto have a word for "it?"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

It's covered in Basics 1: "ĝi".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FishyCuber

Why wouldn't it be 'Ĝi estas malvarma tago.'? Is there a rule I'm missing that lets you drop the ĝi?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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There really is no "it". In English, we just use "it" as a dummy pronoun.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FishyCuber

What do you mean 'there is no it'? In Esperanto, I thought ĝi meant it and I'm confused as to why you can drop the ĝi in this case.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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I mean semantically, there is nothing concrete for "it" to point to. In English we just use the dummy pronoun "it" because our grammar requires it. Like how we say "It is raining." What, exactly, is raining?

In Esperanto, "gxi" can only stand for an actual noun.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FishyCuber

Ahh, I see. That makes a lot more sense. Dankon!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Michal-Mourek

Can you say "gxi estas malvarma tago"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

No. ĝi can only have a concrete referent, like "Ĝi estas verda flago."

Standard English grammar requires an overt subject, even when the referent is abstract (It's a cold day) or non-existent (It's raining).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/P_Azul

Ye-es, but it's not what you'd expect. The word "ĝi" has to refer to something. So, "Ĝi estas malvarma tago.", needs something to refer to: "Kiu estas malvarma tago?" (Which is a cold day?) "Tiu estas malvarma tago." (That is a cold day!)

(Barring errors:) Imagine that you've kept all the days of your tear-off calenders in a box. Every day you wrote the temperature beneath the date, thus you now have years of days with temperatures. Today, together with your friend, you're going to sort all the days by temperature into to piles: One pile is "varma tagoj", above 18°C; the other pile is "malvarma tagoj", below 18°C. But your friend asks: "Kie ni metas tagon de 18 gradoj." (Where do we put a day of 18 degrees?) You think about it, and decide: "Ĝi estas malvarma tago." (It is a cold day.)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mark_Maxis

Is "Tago estas malvarma" grammatically correct?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnnaLowenstein

It's grammatically correct, but I can hardly imagine a context in which you would say that. It means "A day is cold". A more likely sentence would be "La tago estas malvarma" (The day is cold).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

Yes, but it means something rather different from "estas malvarma tago". It's the difference between "It is a warm day" and "A day is warm".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/P_Azul

Ah, but it's actually about "malvarma": cold. That makes it all a bit topsy-turvy, but let me try:

It's summer, and during the day the air-conditioning in the office-building is at full blast. During the night the temperature rises significantly because it's still warm outside, while inside the air-conditioning is off. A cat with her litter live inside the building in the spaces where humans don't go. They can't see the outside; all they experience are the temperature changes in the building. One of the young asks: "Panjo, kia estas la diferenco inter tago kaj nokto?" (Mum, what is the difference between day and night?) And the mother answers: "Tago estas malvarma." (A day is cold.)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AveleenEt

Why is the determiner "la" only used with separate nouns, but never with adjective+noun phrases? This is counterintuitive for a germano-romance language.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JamesTWils

It is. It is not used here because the phrase is indefinite, "a cold day," rather than definite, "the cold day."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AveleenEt

So like a zero article, then? Okay, then, I suppose, it will become clearer for me down the road. Thank you!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JamesTWils

You could think of it that way, though there is no indefinite article in Esperanto, so it is really everything other than the definite article. Unfortunately, I believe the definite article may be used, as in Romance languages, with some general nouns that English would use a zero article with as well. Generally, though, "the" in English will be "la" in Esperanto and "a, an" or zero article in English would simply lack the article in Esperanto, as here.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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  • 2519

Esperanto is not a Germano-Romance language. Zamenhoff incorporated vocabulary and grammar bits from many different European languages, including Germanic and Romance, yes, but also Slavic. But that does not make Esperanto a Germano-Romance-Slavic language. Esperanto is only inspired by these languages, but it is not categorized as part of any of those families.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JamesTWils

Dr Zamenhof certainly intended for his language not to be Romance or Germanic, but beyond the word for sausage (unavoidable, I suppose, in someone living in Poland), where do you see any influence of a Slavic language, particularly in Esperanto grammar?

Actually, I did find one online that I had not thought of, the Esperanto cxu coming from the Polish czy. That sort of question word is certainly not found in Germanic or Romance languages. Indeed, I'm not sure I remember it being in any Slavic language other than Polish, either.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/P_Azul

The article "la" is used both with separate nouns and with nouns with an adjective in front of them. It's used for specific instances:

  • "Bona seĝo multekostas." (A good chair is expensive.) This is about any good chair, which are expensive.

  • "La bona seĝo multekostas." (The good chair is expensive.) This is about a particular chair, which is good and expensive.

The counter-intuitive part for people used to a Germanic or Romance language is that there's no indefinite article. Had there been one, the difference between the sentences with "la" and those without "la" would have been obvious.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Aslan384366

How do you say ”is s cold day” ?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
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"Is it a cold day?" is "Ĉu estas malvarma tago?" You turn any statement into a yes-no question by simply adding "ĉu" to the start.

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