"Estas malvarma tago."

Translation:It is a cold day.

May 28, 2015

47 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/olyglotED

How would you say "It is cold today?"

May 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

You would say "Estas malvarme hodiaŭ". But that involves grammar which hasn't yet been explained. You're jumping ahead of yourself!

June 5, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/neeeeeeeeek

For the original sentence, could it be a realistic posibility to use "Tago malvarmas" since "tago" is already a singular indefinite noun and "malvarmas" is a verb form of the adjective "malvarma". I mean this in the purposes of speech, as in is it natural sounding or not.

September 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

I don't think it would convey the same thing. "It's a cold day" vs "A day is cold".

September 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

Wouldn't that just be vocabulary? I don't see any grammatical difference.

June 6, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

When you say "ĝi estas malvarma" en Esperanto, "ĝi" (it) refers to something specific which has already been named, e.g. the coffee, the water, the day, the room. In that case the word "malvarma" (cold) correctly has an adjective ending. But in English we also like to say things like "It's cold", "it's dark", "it's unfortunate that..." where "it" doesn't refer to anything specific, but is simply a way of introducing the phrase. In Esperanto, where there's no specific subject in expressions like that, you just say "estas..." and follow it up with an adverb, not an adjective: "estas malvarme", "estas mallume", "estas bedaŭrinde ke..." Adverbs are used a great deal in Esperanto, as you will discover. I hope you can follow this very brief explanation of a point which I suppose will come later in the course.

June 6, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

I was looking at the difference between "estas malvarma tago" and "estas malvarma hodiaŭ".

June 6, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

You wouldn't say "estas malvarma hodiaŭ". That's an incomplete phrase. It means "... is cold today". But you could say "estas malvarma tago". That means "it's a cold day."

June 6, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

You wouldn't say "estas malvarma hodiaŭ". That's an incomplete phrase. It means "... is cold today".

But in your reply to OliverEdsforth:

How would you say "It is cold today?"

You said:

You would say "Estas malvarme hodiaŭ".

June 6, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

Look more carefully at the endings of the words. (Endings are essential in Esperanto!) Malvarma is an adjective and malvarme is an adverb. But, as I said, you're rushing ahead to a more advanced lesson. Better to work through it step by step, or it will seem confusing.

June 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/tu.8zPhLD72zzoZN

I made that mistake also, so I looked it up.

"today " is "hodiaŭ"

Here are some dictionaries that I am finding useful: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16967/16967-h/16967-h.htm (English to Esperanto)

http://esperanto-panorama.net/vortaro/eoen.htm (Esperanto to English)

May 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ONoh10

Dankon!

December 31, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Chuggy370

Can we only drop the pronoun when it is it? If it would obviously be I or YOU, could we drop it then?

May 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/amuzulo

Yes, only for it, not for other pronouns.

May 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Chuggy370

Thanks :) Nice course, I love these sentences.

May 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ChristopherHaire

I know that the "mal" suffix is important for creating words like "cold" and "small" from Granda and Varma. But are there any words specifically for cold or small that aren't just the opposite of large or hot?

May 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/tu.8zPhLD72zzoZN

I looked up "small" and the dictionary still gave me "malgranda", but in another discussion someone gave the word for "tiny" as "eta" so I looked up "tiny", but what the dictionary gave me was "malgrandeta" so I must have misunderstood the person who was probably trying to explain the ending change for "tiny", but just to make sure I looked up "eta" and lo and behold it is listed as "tiny" - maybe it is short for the other one. It is an exception.
Even the word for "a dwarf" which is "malgrandegulo" is the opposite of the word for "a giant".

"Cold" came up as ""malvarma", but "to catch a cold" or "have a cold" use different words. "Frigid is "glaciiga" and "cool" is "malvarmeta"

Here see what you can find! If you go to a different intensity, there is usually another word; otherwise, it looks as though there would be no need for a thesaurus in Esperanto.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16967/16967-h/16967-h.htm

http://esperanto-panorama.net/vortaro/eoen.htm

HERE IS ANOTHER DICTIONARY: http://www.archive.org/stream/englishesperanto00oconuoft/englishesperanto00oconuoft_djvu.txt

May 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ChristopherHaire

Oh, wow, thanks for all the info! Here's a lingot for all your hard work researching that for me!

May 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/alexhuggs

I think 'et' is a suffix. It makes something smaller. Dormo = house. Dormeto = hut or cottage. 'Eta' would be with the adjective. Someone may correct me though.

May 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

I'd say you're 99% good there. The only thing I'd clarify is that affixes stack in an established sequence.

So you start with the root, whether "varm-" or "dorm-" or what have you, and then add the "-et-" suffix to indicate smallness, and then add either "-o" to indicate noun or "-a" to indicate adjective (or "-e" to indicate adverb, etc.)

And then you might add the suffix "-j" to indicate plural, and then you might add the suffix "-n" to indicate the accusative.

August 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/JamesTWils

Since this is a constructed language, I think the whole point is to have as few synonyms as possible.

June 4, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/u0434876

How does one differentiate between various words as the [mal] opposite form? For instance, how does one differentiate between "cool" versus "cold" for "malvarma"?

August 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

"Cool" would be "malvarmeta", which is "malvarma" with a diminutive added. If you wanted to make a scale of degrees of cold and heat, it would be "varmega, varma, varmeta, malvarmeta, malvarma, malvarmega". I hope that's enough to be going on with!

August 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

Dankon multe!

August 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/CharlesDanielChr

So something like: Varmega = Scorching, blistering, Varma = Warm Varmeta = Lukewarm Malvarmeta = Tepid Malvarma = Cool Malvarmega = Freezing, Chilly

December 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

I would say "varma" was warm to hot, depending on the context.

December 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

Ah, like in French.

December 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/u0434876

Ditto on the Dankon!

December 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/MateoGarci

Would it be normal to say " la tago estas malvarma" instead?

June 17, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

I think it's the same as in English, the difference between "It's a cold day" and "The day is cold."

June 17, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/edson559871

Is it correct to say "estas malvarma tago hodiaû" to "it is a cold day today"?

June 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

Yes.

June 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Axeous

Darn got it wrong figured it would be "it is cold today" I try to get these right by guessing. makes it easier to learn because when I can't guess it right it makes me sad, but when I guess it right I am really really happy.

May 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/KoreanEsperanto

Estas varma tago.

May 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/JohnJuanGiovanni

Does Esperanto have a word for "it?"

June 1, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

It's covered in Basics 1: "ĝi".

June 2, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/FishyCuber

Why wouldn't it be 'Ĝi estas malvarma tago.'? Is there a rule I'm missing that lets you drop the ĝi?

December 31, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

There really is no "it". In English, we just use "it" as a dummy pronoun.

December 31, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/FishyCuber

What do you mean 'there is no it'? In Esperanto, I thought ĝi meant it and I'm confused as to why you can drop the ĝi in this case.

December 31, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

I mean semantically, there is nothing concrete for "it" to point to. In English we just use the dummy pronoun "it" because our grammar requires it. Like how we say "It is raining." What, exactly, is raining?

In Esperanto, "gxi" can only stand for an actual noun.

December 31, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/FishyCuber

Ahh, I see. That makes a lot more sense. Dankon!

December 31, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ONoh10

Touch the words before you give your answer. There are hints!

December 31, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Michal-Mourek

Can you say "gxi estas malvarma tago"?

April 25, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

No. ĝi can only have a concrete referent, like "Ĝi estas verda flago."

Standard English grammar requires an overt subject, even when the referent is abstract (It's a cold day) or non-existent (It's raining).

April 25, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Mark_Maxis

Is "Tago estas malvarma" grammatically correct?

July 19, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaLowenstein

It's grammatically correct, but I can hardly imagine a context in which you would say that. It means "A day is cold". A more likely sentence would be "La tago estas malvarma" (The day is cold).

July 19, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
  • 1916

Yes, but it means something rather different from "estas malvarma tago". It's the difference between "It is a warm day" and "A day is warm".

July 19, 2018
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