I think one of the greatest things about Esperanto is that it's super easy to learn. I think this is one of the main reasons it was able to spread so much. People don't give up on learning it like they would for Russian or German, because it's so easy to learn. This is by far the language with THE most straightforward grammar ever.
Yes, and it is helpful to learn other languages too, as it introduces grammatical ideas that don't exist (or are uncommon) in EN. The direct object -n is obviously taken from the German, as well as how adjective takes the same ending as the noun
- And because English grammar is not understood well by most native speakers, anyway.
Usually we go by what "sounds right".
- And because learning languages often helps with similar vocabulary from the same language family.
(for this purpose English & Esperanto are almost in both the Romance family & the Germanic family).
- And because learning a second language always helps with learning other languages - confidence, perserverance, techniques, etc
That is, often English has a word that relates to the Romance root word, but not necessarily the most common word for the thing.
Let's take dog as an example:
most commonly in English: dog,
but also in English: hound, canine.
When I started taking Spanish freshman year of high school, I became really glad English shares so many latin cognates with it. Thank to the Normans for invading England in 1066. You guys made my Spanih class 900 years later so much more easy. On the other hand, German and Dutch might've been easier for English speakers if they hadn't invaded and Old English hadn't lost so much of it's inflection and West Germanic grammar. Altho I suppose the Viking invasion of England is to blame for that as well.
Wow, I never really thought about how the accusative ending is the same in German.
Certainly, the language are relatives :) German left the cases, but English didn't.
Are you sure it is not taken from Finnish? Because in Finnish you literally add -n to the end of the word, not to the article.
It's only easy for people who have experience with other romantic or Germanic languages. It has no relation to Asian languages, so for them it would still be difficult.
So true, it is has no relation whatsoever in Asian languages. But I will never give up! And I think, I will get it sooner or later, I hope.
At least there's still the fact that this language has been invented and didn't grow naturally, so there are not all those exceptions and irregularities you have to keep in mind in all other languages.
The construction of words is not unlike that of Chinese but very different than romance languages.
I gave up German, tried again but gave up. I thought it was just me. Each time lasted around 1 month. I tried Russian for a few minutes, but just thought ''No''. lol
"Bonan tagon" is short for "Havu bonan tagon." ("Have a good day.") or "Mi deziras al vi bonan tagon." ("I wish you a good day.") Therefore it is a direct object and gets the -n.
The same goes for other short noun phrases in Esperanto. "(Mi deziras al vi) Gratulon." / "(I wish you) congratulations."
Here is the section of the grammar book PMEG about that, but it's in Esperanto: http://bertilow.com/pmeg/gramatiko/frazospecoj/mallongigitaj_frazoj.html#i-tfd
Thanks for the concise explanation! Slightly embarrassed I didn't realize why on my own. Especially as I say it every day when I drop the kids off at daycare. "Have a good day!"
Because you are wishing it to someone, and thus it's an object, and the object of the sentence always ends in -n.
In addition to the comments explaining it here, you can have a look to the Tip&Notes (in the web version) in the skill this exercise appeared: it's explained there too.
Yep, it's like "dankon" as far as I understand. It's due to the accusative case I think. "Bonan tagon" is short for something like "I wish you a good day" (mi deziras al vi bonan tagon).
Dankon - Thanks is not so much an idiom as an elliptical phrase. "Elliptical" means that something has been left out. Thanks =I give you thanks Dankon= Mi donas al vi dankon. So "thanks" and "dankon" are the object.
More typically for greeting, but nothing wrong with using it for departing as well.
Why did bona and tago have n's added to them in the phrase bonan tagon? Dont know if there is a reason, just curious
Because you wish a good day. Direct object.
And I suggest to you reading Tips and notes, there is some information about it.
Absolutely! I appreciated and upvoted your answer. My point was just to emphasize the fact that in German too, you get the "n" of the accusative, precisely as it is with esperanto.
Is "tagon" = "afternoon" and "tago" = "day"?
Not sure if Im confusing something but I almost could swear I saw the word" tago" meaning "day". Like " bela tago".
Tagon is just the accusative form of tago. It's the same word and the same meaning. You have to use the accusative because you're wishing it. It's as if you wrote "Mi deziras bonan tagon al vi" (I wish you a good afternoon". If you write "Bona tago!", it means that you believe that today is a nice day, not that you are wishing a nice day to someone.
The app sais that the translation for this is "Good day!" but in a previous exercise the translation is "Good afternoon!".
What is the right way to translate it?
Every language and culture divides the day in its own way. In Canada we almost never day "Good Day"". It's either "Good Morning" or "Good Afternoon" .In Spanish "Buenos días" literally ''good day" is used from the morning until the early afternoon; after that it become "Buenas tardes". In Esperanto you have ''Bonan matenon"" (Good Morning), Bonan tagon ( Good day, good afternoon) and Bonan vesperon (Good evening). So, for "Bonan tagon", bothe Good day, and good afternoon should be accepted.
Some more context might help.
In this sentence it has to be "bonan" because it's an adjective (adjectives end in -a - bona) -- and since it's a greeting, it ends in -n (like "saluton").
No, "hello" means "Saluton" and has a broader sense than "bonan tagon" (according to flyver, one of the team members).
so if we're translating Good Day from english to esperanto, how would we know if it's just "bona tago" as in practically it's a good day or "bonan tagon" as in wishing someone to have a good day?
"Bonan tagon" would be the greeting whereas "Estas bona tago" would be saying that it is a good day.
Hi mijaberes1, No, Good afternoon = bonan posttagmezon
Bonan tagon = Good day/nice day/fine day.
I hope to have you helped If there are doubts or mistakes please comment
Greetings and luck
This is really weird, because it wants me to translate "bonan tagon" to "good afternoon".
Probably because "Good afternoon is used before the evening my and after morning in English, and "Bonan tagon is used the same way in Esperanto, so there is naturally a strong correlation. "Good day" can replace all instances of " Good afternoon", but "Good afternoon" cannot replace all instances of "Good day". The same goes in Esperanto, with "Bonan tagon" being able to replace all instances of "Bonan posttagmezon", but "Bonan posttagmezon" not being able to replace all instances of "Bonan tagon". Hope that helped.
MailmanSpy : I don't see a reply button to your comment so I'm replying to myself instead...
It marked it as being wrong.
For some reason, the translation is now, "good afternoon" instead of what's previously "good day" when I came back to strengthen-weak-words and "day" has been removed from among the choice of words listed to translate this greeting. Google translates bonan tagon to mean good day.
It shouldn't be. The correct answer is "Good day" (as stated at the top of this page).
It a shortening of a phrase similar to "Mi deziras bonan tagon al vi" which means "I wish a good day to you"
Hello, I would like to ask if anybody actually uses "Good day!" as a greeting in English. I think the socially acceptable greeting in English speaking countries is either Hello, Good morning or Good afternoon - depending on the time of the day, where the Esperanto speaker would just use "Bonan tagon".
I always took it as a funny cultural misunderstanding in Karl May books where the American cowboys greet each other with German "Guten Tag!" simply translated into English.
I work as a translator and in translation there is always this question of choice between "literal translation" and "contextually well fitted translation with respect to the target language". So if we want to respect the English as the target language here, we should not introduce the greetings which are not actually used in English.