I think it was "al ni", because "nin" would be accusative, but the milk was being given, not us.
you're right. nin would be accusative but here ni should receive dative marking
Us in this case would be the INDIRECT object, while milk would be the direct object, so al ni implies that something is being given TO us rather than us being given to somebody.
Well, the sentence "Li donas al ni lakton" or "Li donas lakton al ni" would literally translate to "He gives milk to us," where "us" would not be the indirect object but the object of a preposition.
Now, I'm not sure how Esperanto handles objects of prepositions, but I'm sure one of the grammar pages on duolingo says that nouns preceded by a preposition never get the -n. However, I've also read that da and de mark indirect objects, so they might not actually count as prepositions.
Don't forget Esperanto is a mixture of many languages, and in this case the phrase is very GERMANIC:
Li donas al ni la lakton-
◘ Subject: Li (he)
◘Verb: doni (give)
◘ Direct object: well, i'm giving wilk, not "giving us", so milk is the accusative/ direct object of my sentence.
◘ Indirect object: The milk was given to us, the milk is the direct object, so IT us given to US.... al ni is the indirect object.
And because Esperanto is a mixture of many languages you can also say Li donas la lakton al ni, which is a bit more complicated but it's ok!!
The accusative can also be used here. You can either say “Li donas lakton al ni“ or “Li donas lakton nin“.
The accusative has more than one function: • marks the direct object • marks the direction • marks the time • can be sometimes used as an alternative to “al”
I cannot find the exact rule right now. Maybe I’ll post here later-on a reference to the exact grammar rule.
I still have not found the rule but I was told, that in this sentence “al” sounds more natural but “nin” still is not wrong.
I was wrong because a verb must not have more than one connection.
Quote from this page: http://bertilow.com/pmeg/gramatiko/rolmontriloj/n/objekto.html
“Ĉe iuj verboj ricevanto/profitanto/malprofitanto povas aperi aŭ kiel al-komplemento, aŭ kiel objekto kun N-finaĵo. Tiaj verboj havas alternativajn frazkonstruojn.”
My translation of this: “At some verbs a recipient […] may either appear as an al-complement, or as an object with a N-complement. Such verbs have alternative sentence construction.”
But since you could therefore build sentences with two accusatives (source: http://bertilow.com/pmeg/gramatiko/verboj_frazroloj/alternativoj.html): “Sed oni ne povas samtempe havi plurajn objektojn kun malsamaj rilatoj al la ĉefverbo. Ne diru: Mi dankis lin la tujan plenumon de mia deziro. Mi petas vin pardonon. […]”
My translation: “But one cannot simultaneously have several objects with different connections to the main verb. […]”
When a verb does not have two connections you can replace “al” with the accusative in Esperanto. With this in mind you can either say: “Mi dankas al vi” or “Mi dankas vin”.
You can't use two accusatives at the same verb.
You could use nin, if you are saying "Li donas nin." It could be a part of a conversation where we already know or don't care about what was given.
An example: - Kie estas la mono? - Mi ne konas. - Vi diras malveron. - Bone! Li donas nin kaj...
This is going to come off as extremely rude. I wish you no ill, but I"m saying it anyway. I'm going to suggest that you don't give advice about Esperanto for a while. This is just plain wrong -- and there already has been a lot of discussion elsewhere in the thread. You cant say "li donas nin" unless "we" are the things being given. This comes from the meaning of the word "doni", not from a restriction on double accusatives. There are additional errors in your examples.
There's nothing wrong with being a beginner, or making mistakes, or being new... but please spend some time really learning Esperanto before giving advice ... especially when the question already has a good answer on it. It just creates more confusion for others.
Just curious... can the original sentence be written as "Li donas lakton al ni" instead? Would that be grammatically correct / sound natural?
In 20 years of speaking Esperanto I haven't found that people make a big deal either way.
- Li donas lakton al ni
- Li donas al ni lakton
Both are good.
I think so but I'm not sure. I know that Esperanto has a very flexible word order.
It can be flexible, but it's always useful to use the general order that people will all understand
That's a good idea but I guess we should be a little bit careful about the word order when you want to emphasize something.. look below..
Mi vin amas. I love you. (I, for you am loving.) Vin mi amas. I love you. (It is you that i love.) Vin amas mi. I love you. (You are loved by me.) Amas mi vin. I love you. (Love is what i have for you.) Amas vin mi. I love you. (Loving you is what i'm doing.)
I got this from http://esperanto.org/stanford/leciono-0-order/
I think the preferred order depends on one's native language, as many other things.
It's the same as, for instance "ši estas bela" and "ši belas": they're both correct, but, as in english we'd say "she's beautiful", we'd be more likely to use the first one. Maybe people from other countries tend to prefer the latter instead
If you're giving something to someone, you'll need "al + pronoun". That same sentence could have been written: Li donas lakton al ni.
Since "to give" usually requires an indirect object (to whom?), you'll have to use "al" with to verb "doni" a lot.
So did I; that's why I looked at the discussion. I have tinnitus, and I have Music Choice playing on both the TV and the computer, and the computer lags behind the TV a fair bit; it's like hearing two people singing a round. So, I don't think I'm in a good position to make good judgments about what he actually says. But I played it several times after getting it wrong, and it sounds like "mi" to me.
Some other word orders:
Li donas al ni lakton. (He, is who gives milk to us)
Lakton li donas al ni. (Milk, is what he gives us)
Al ni li donas lakton. (Us, is whom he gives milk to)
Donas li lakton al ni. (To give, is what he does with milk to us.)
I'm not sure if they're all accepted. Correct me if I'm wrong.
I have just reached level 5, so before i continue with this lesson what should i have a full grasp in this amazing language before i continue?
Is there a difference between "He gives us milk" and "He is giving us milk" in esperanto? In other cases they looked the same.
No there isn't. "He is giving us milk." should be accepted as a valid translation for this sentence.
And yet here we are, 3 years later and this is the only exercise I've found that doesn't accept it :/
You can say "Li estas donanta al ni lakton" (or even "Li donantas al ni lakton"), which only means "He is giving us milk". But this is very rare (tio estas tre malofta), and "Li donas" can mean both "He gives" and "He is giving".
I take it that "li donas lakton al ni" is also correct? But is "Li donas al ni lakton" the more preferred method?
Esperanto usally don't have a preferred word order. As it can be different for each native language. So it is easier if you keep your native word order.
Esperanto usally don't have a preferred word order. As it can be different for each native language.
I envision getting "mi" and "ni" confused often in the audio. They just sound too similar when spoken fast. Maybe headphones would help.
"some" is "iom" http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16967/16967-h/16967-h.htm
"to us" -- "Li donas al ni lakton" -- He gave to us milk OR "Li donas lakton al ni" -- He gave milk to us.
"He give the us milk" Li (he) donas (give) al (the) ni (us) lakton (milk). Is what I read and got it wrong, what am I doing wrong?.. :<
Al means to, la means the. It's "Li (he) donas (gives) al (to) ni (us) lakton (milk).
I put he gives us the milk. Guessing "the" was what is wrong. Not sure why. Can someone please tell me why? Starting to learn this language, structure is not my strong point.
... so I answered that, got the correct-green - and the confusing translation "He gives us milk."