"Hot coffee is good."
Translation:Varma kafo estas bona.
"bonas" vs "estas bona" = these mean almost the same, with almost any verb. Fluent Esperantists seem to mostly prefer the "bonas" form.
"Varmega" vs "varma" = from reading one of the other discussions of a sentence using "varma" in this lesson (Basics part 2, lesson 2), this seems to be about describing varying degrees of temperature, like this:
malvarma = cold,
varma = warm,
tre varma = very warm,
varmega = hot,
tre varmega = very hot.
Yes and you will learn that adverbs and adjectives such as "tre" and "bona" modify how the verb/adjective/verb is while suffixes such as "-eg" and "-et" change the entire meaning of the word. Take, for example, "pafilo", "granda pafilo", "pafilego", and "granda pafilego". "Pafilo" is a gun, "granda pafilo" is a big gun, "pafilego" is a cannon, and "granda pafilego" is a big cannon. Since a cannon is basically a big gun, but a different weapon, you can just add the suffix. The same even goes for the ammunition, which is "kuglo" for a bullet and "kuglego" for a cannon-ball. You can probably do the same thing for daggers, swords, and longswords, and shacks, houses, and mansions.
Yes, bonega = excellent.
has an Eo-English (can be changed) dictionary in a box to the right of the page, and this agrees.
It seems that "-ega" is a suffix & "ega" is a word, both meaning "considerable/major/great".
Esperanto is wonderful for the way words can be formed by modifying & adding (even layering) suffixes etc!
Mal'bon'eg'ul'land'o - un-good-er-person-land-noun - a country of terrible people.
Kok'aĵ'gust'ant'fromaĝ'o - chicken-meat-taste-ing-cheese-noun - cheese which tastes like chicken
Bier'mal'am'ant'patr'in'aro - beer-un-love-ing-dad-female-group-noun - club of mothers who hate beer<h1>EsperantoEterne</h1>
This discussion reminds me of a time many years ago when I had to take a course in Medical Terminolgy. It was all Latin and Greek ( which didn't bother me at all ) and I found it fascinating. All one needed to do was take a root, and add as many prefixes and suffixes as you desired. In this way, one can describe exactly anything in medicine. I think I'm going to feel just as enthusiastic about Esperanto!