Translation:They like white bread and they like black bread.
You forgot to mention that it is as dark as a bear and resembles a balalaika in shape.
Jokes aside, rye bread is no more related to borsch and vodka than to other food and drink. Choosing between white and black bread is more a matter of personal taste. (That's what the Esperanto sentence is about.)
There's another evidence that black bread is not something special for vodka. In the dialect of Russian that is used in Saint Petersburg, hleb means black bread (not bread in general), and bulka means white bread (not bun as in common Russian). It's not just a historical fact. In recent years, I was personally in situations where I saw white bread (in a store, a cafe), asked for hleb and was answered with something like: "There is no hleb left. This? You've asked for hleb but this is bulka".
Schwarzbrot. Probably what Terry Pratchett had in mind for his dwarf bread ; ) But yes it is a rye bread that they bake pretty long too and sometimes add so many sunflower seeds in it, that its barely bread^^
I'm not 100% sure of this but it might be possible using ankaŭ.
Like "Ili ŝatas blankon pano kaj ili ŝatas ankaŭ nigran pano." if I'm right would be just "They like white bread, and they like black bread too."
And "Ili ŝatas blankon pano kaj ankaŭ ili ŝatas nigran pano." would be like "They like white bread, and they (group 2) like black bread."
Someone should probably confirm if I'm right or not. XD I just thought of it after seeing your question.
"Ili ŝatas blankon pano kaj ili ŝatas ankaŭ nigran pano." Would not be correct because the word "ankau" must appear immediately before the word it refers to. (https://www.duolingo.com/skill/eo/Colors)
However, I believe that "Ili ŝatas blankon pano kaj ili ankaŭ ŝatas nigran pano." would be correct.
Replying to this post
"Ili ŝatas blankon pano kaj ili ŝatas ankaŭ nigran pano." Would not be correct because the word "ankau" must appear immediately before the word it refers to. (https://www.duolingo.com/skill/eo/Colors) However, I believe that "Ili ŝatas blankon pano kaj ili ankaŭ ŝatas nigran pano." would be correct.
The first sentence means "They like white bread and they like black bread (in addition to white bread)" So I would say it's correct. The rule about coming before the word it modifies is a good one, but be careful about finding the word that's modified. (Some authors, including Zamenhof, have broken this rule.)
In Esperanto, some people find it easier to type Sx instead of ŝ and Cx instead of ĉ and so on and so forth. It's just when people either don't have access to an Esperanto keyboard or they don't want to use it. You can also use Sh and Ch if you're so inclined however that usage is much older and isn't as widespread as X
So surely the bread is the subject of this sentence (so ends in an n - it does, great) and the colours are adjectives so end in 'a' - so why do they also get an 'n' on the end as well - it makes no sense to me.... :-( bread is the subject, white the adjective....yet also is a subject??? It's more difficult than French!
Newbie here, but as I've understood it: "blankan" is an adjective, "panon" is a noun, and "blankan panon" together (as they are in this case) are the direct object (not subject btw) of the sentence. Since "white bread" is the direct object, it gets the -n ending, wich goes onto both nouns and adjectives in Esperanto.
I think that "ili" is the subject and "sxatas" the subject while colored breads "pano" is an object here and thats why the "n" is added to make "panon" to the adjectives (colors) must agree with the object.. so they also take an "n"..
At least thats what I've taken from this so far..
Mi estas komencanto!