I think the difference is that technically here, "mi" is an indirect object, not a direct object.
In your example "patro" is a direct object because it's what is being obeyed. "The infant obeys the father" makes sense in English. In this one "mi" is not a direct object. It's not "are you speaking me?", it's "are you speaking (words) TO me". That's an indirect object.
At least that's my understanding.
Every time a sentence implies the word "do" I miss it entirely. I'm concluding the word "do" doesn't even exist in Esperanto and everyone just magically knows when it should be in a sentence. The translation on my page is "Do you speak to me?" How do I know that it is "do?" (I had guessed "Will") Is there a clue I missed? Thanks for any insight.
The "do", "will", etc. in English comes from the tense: past, present, or future. I spoke/I did speak. I speak/I do speak. I will speak.
Verb forms are simpler in Esperanto. There are no auxiliaries like "do" or "will". I spoke/I did speak is just "mi parolis". I speak/I do speak is just "mi parolas". I will speak is just "mi parolos".
Closed questions (yes/no, either/or, multiple choice) are formed with the interrogative particle "ĉu" at the start of the sentence.
I spoke/Mi parolis
Did I speak?/Ĉu mi parolis?
I speak/Mi parolas
Do I speak? Ĉu mi parolas?
I will speak/Mi parolos
Will I speak?/Ĉu mi parolos?