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  5. "Ĉu vi parolas la italan, la …

"Ĉu vi parolas la italan, la francan, la hispanan la germanan?"

Translation:Do you speak Italian, French, Spanish or German?

May 29, 2015

62 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ArVID220u

Has Esperanto any rules regarding Oxford commas? Or can I use them as I like?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ChuckWalter

I have heard that one can use Oxford commas if one wishes to.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TraiSan

What are Oxford commas?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
  • 2406

Also known as serial commas. If you have three or more items, it's the comma you use before "and".

Mirepoix is onions, carrots, and celery.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/liu-yue-si-ri

Example without Oxford comma:

"I love Sofia, my wife and my sister."

(This implies that Sofia is both my wife and my sister O_O ).


Example with Oxford comma:

"I love Sofia, my wife, and my sister."

(This explicitly shows that I love 3 different people)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/liu-yue-si-ri

Tre amuza! Dankon! Mi tre ŝatas Ayn Rand.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/EsperantoKajelo

But I don't want your drama, if you really wanna, leave out that Oxford comma!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Fantomius

According to Esperantist J.F. Conroy, Esperanto doesn't dictate punctuation.

(Occasionally, you'll see comma-usage that's closer to German than English. What you use is fine as long as you're understood.)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RichardSmi907866

Sajnas, ke vi malpravas. That's an example of a sentence in Esperanto where the comma is required. Moreover, it's an situation where Esperanto uses a comma somewhat differently to English.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/salivanto

For real. In what other language course is "just being understood" the standard?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/literally_lauren

Does Esperanto make any intonational distinguishing between 'do you speak A or B (ie. do you speak one of these, or something else?)' and 'do you speak A or B (ie. which of these do you speak?)'

In English I guess they'd be set apart by stress, so in the first sentence 'speak' would be the primary focus, whereas in the second, 'A' would be more prominent, but I'm curious as to whether Esperanto has any similar features


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/amuzulo

No, there are absolutely no rules about stress in Esperanto. So yes, this can be an ambiguous question.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Orbaleno

If you say "ĉu li parolas aŭ la francan aŭ la germanan" then you are asking if he speaks any of the languages, without the first "aŭ" it may be asking which one of them he speaks.

Is this correct?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/apricotpixie

Do you mean is Esperanto a stress based language?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PrauaeBoleti

He or she is asking if there's a particular way to indicate the difference between an inclusive or and an exclusive or


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/literally_lauren

Yes, ^^this, basically =) I'm assuming there's some sort of intonational difference (eg. upward inflection at the end like most Germanic languages) but I'm not sure. The speaker here seems to use a falling tone - is that typical for interrogative phrases?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

According to my experience, there is no real difference being made. So the falling tone on the last word is either particular to the speaker who made the recording, or just particular to this phrase here. Actually Esperanto doesn't have any particular rules on intonation.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/liu-yue-si-ri

I would like to mention that "exclusive or" is often called "xor".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ouranikos

Wouldn't your first sentence begin with "ĉu"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Robbadob

Both would take ĉu.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnCatDubh

Argh, beat me to it!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mprdo

Plus English and Norwegian. :-) 14Sep19


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MrMatryoshka

This is impossible to type on timed practice.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/pcmckinstry

Mi parolas anglan kaj germanan! :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FunnyHorse3

Ambaŭ mi! (Sed mi /lernas/ la germanan)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Nvirjskly

Since ĉu denotes a yes or no question, this sentence is asking if you speak any of the above languages, no?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

That's a logical conclusion. But for some reason also multiple-choice question in Esperanto are used with ĉu, e.g.: "Ĉu vi volas trinki teon aŭ kafon?", or "Ĉu via infano estos knabo aŭ knabino?" - it can be understood as a truncation of "Ĉu vi volas trinki teon aŭ ĉu vi volas trinki kafon?". So indeed you can answer that first question with "Teon!", "Kafon!", or simply with "Jes!" ;)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Nvirjskly

Ah, I see, none of my resources have discussed such a use case as of yet, but that makes a lot of sense. Thank you.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/amuzulo

Yes, I only realized it as we were designing this course!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jecxjo

"Ĉu" actually comes from the Polish "czy". Similarly it can be used as an interrogative particle (If questions) as well as "whether" / "or" / "or not" statements.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PawelBaj

Polish uses 'czy' for alternative questions, as in: 'czy' do you want coffee, 'czy' (or) tea? (Which of these?) For an inclusive or in questions you would use czy... albo / lub ... (any of these) In Esperanto you would use ĉu... aŭ... in both cases, according to the PMEG


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RichardSmi907866

It's exactly the same in English. I might ask "Would you like tea or coffee?" At a formal, grammatical level, this is a yes/no question, but "yes" is a bit of a dick answer. A normal person would reply with one of "no", "tea", "coffee" or "either".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/-..--..-.-.-.-

Mi parolas la swedan, la anglan, la ĉinan kaj la francan!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheQueenZerelda

Mi parolas...la anglas...kaj iomete Esperanton?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tu.8zPhLD72zzoZN

Watch out "-as" ending is for verbs in present tense. "la anglan"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/-..--..-.-.-.-

Good luck with making it "multe"!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/synesca

Why! I speak all 4 and more, thanks for asking! :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/stephbutler19

How does esperanto differentiate between "do you speak" and "are you speaking"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

It doesn't. Usually. It's just Ĉu vi parolas...

If you really have to stretch that it's an ongoing speaking act, you can say Ĉu vi estas parolanta..., but hardly anyone ever uses that.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AaronKurz

Do you have to say "la italan" or is italan enough?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Julian_L.

You need the article, because it's a short form of «la itala lingvo» ("the Italian language").


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/GyuPark

Please correct me if I am wrong. According to my limited knowledge ofEsperanto, 'Cxu' makes a question a 'yes-no type', right? If that is the case, is 'au' an English equivalent of inclusive 'or'?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rae.F
  • 2406

"Cxu" can mark a yes-no question or a multiple-choice question. As far as I know, "au" works exactly like the English "or".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jecxjo

"Ĉu" actually comes from the Polish "czy". Similarly it can be used as an interrogative particle (If questions) as well as "whether" / "or" / "or not" statements.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/alfredo-martin

Mi parolas la hispanan, la portugalan kaj la anglan!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/leafwind1

How do you say "non of them" ...?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jecxjo

neniu

neni- is the negative correlative prefix (none)

-u is the individual correlative suffix (you, one, a thing)

Kiu is is who/which. iu is some, neniu is none. All the questions have quantitative answers all using the same base grammatical objects.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RichardSmi907866

Shouldn't that be neniun? It's short for mi parolas neniun el ili, which suggests it should be neniun, in the same way that we say dankon, which is short for something like mi donas al vi dankon, rather than just danko.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PrinceOnye2

mi parolas la angla


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CameronNed

Tiu estas referenco al la reĝo Karlo V.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kyoumimasu

Can this be translated as both

'Do you speak...(A, B, C, or D)?' or 'Are you speaking...(A, B, C, or D)?'

...or is it just one of those?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Julian_L.

Yes, it can be translated in both ways.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/imnotveryc1

What do they mean here? Do you speak one of these, which one do you speak, or others? Does it expect you to speak one of these?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Awesome74

Mi parolas la francan kaj la hispanan iomete


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/EsperantaGeraldo

Regarding the ambiguity resulting from the possible translations "Do you speak [ever]..." versus "Are you speaking [now]...":

Perhaps it would be more understandable to ask "Can you speak...", "Ĉu vi povas paroli..."; Or "Are you able to speak...", "Ĉu vi kapablas paroli..."

Ĉu ne?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RichardSmi907866

You're right they're ambiguous. Much of the time it'll be clear from context which sense is intended. But if you think it might not be clear, you can certainly rephrase the question in the ways you suggest.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ntSS15

I don't speak any of them(-_-メ)

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