"They learn an English word."
Translation:Ili lernas anglan vorton.
If you want to translate the noun "English", you use "la angla" as short for "la angla lingvo". But "angla" by itself is an adjective in Esperanto, so you don't need the "la" when you just want to translate the adjective "English".
It's because anglan vorton is the direct object, so it has to be accusative. When an adjective is modifying an accusative noun, it gets an -n to mark that it's accusative after its -a, which is still there to mark that it's an adjective.
It's because "anglan" is an adjective modifying "vorton," and also because you're saying "a word" (just "vorton" in Esperanto) instead of "the word" ("la vorton").
I will respectfully observe here, that you could have left an estas out of that sentence, and it would make even more sense.
The first one. The sentence should be "Ne, li diras, ke tio estas la traduko."
As for why, having two verbs of the same tense together tends to be considered poor grammar in most languages. If you are trying to say "Is saying* in Esperanto, then the ~as affix denoting the present tense makes the "is" for you. Otherwise you are are saying "He is is saying…"
Is 'vorton anglan' the same as 'anglan vorton'? Which is grammatically correct??
In Esperanto the position of the noun and adjective is actually immaterial. This course seems to be maintaining a more rigidly English standard of adjective first, but, per Zamenhof and many others, the exact order is left flexible so that native speakers of other languages may speak in a way more comfortable to them. It also allows for very flexible sentence structure which is an incredible boon to poets, writers of aphorisms, and anybody else who likes to play with where might lie, of a sentence, the emphasis.
I dont understand. Which word represents an? I know there is no direct word for an, but which words include the word an into them? I hope i made sense.
"An" is not expressed by any word here - neither is it expressed by part of a word. Mostly it's context that tells you that it's "an." The sentence can be translated word-for-word as "they learn English word" -- and any English speaker would know that this needs "an" to be grammatical.
Would changing vorton to vortoj make it: "The learn english words?"
You would also need to make the adjective match the noun in number (Fundamento: regulo 3) so it would have to be anglajn vortojn. they are, after all, still the object.
Estas "unu anglan vorton" nekorekte? Mi skribas "unu" kaj Duolingo diras nekorekte.
Did you report it? That is saying that someone only learned one English word.
I'm surprised that they still insist on the third person plural for this sentence. Perhaps they really do want us to not use oni occasionally.
In the translation, anglan is not capitalized. What is the rule in Esperanto for capitalization of proper nouns and adjectives?
Names of people, cities, and countries are capitalized. Months, days, and languages (except Esperanto) are not. There may be other rules, but these are the ones that spring to mind.