well, not really. you have to remember that Esperanto doesn't HAVE masculine or feminine nouns. I mean, often German, French, and Spanish don't always agree on the gender of a noun. e.g. the chair - la chaise (f) - der Stuhl (m) - la silla (f). so you're better off never comparing grammatical gender between language, because it's just correlative, not causative.
it makes more sense, in terms of grammatical gender, to compare 'la' in Esperanto with 'the' in English, rather than 'la' in Esperanto with articles in any language that has gender.
Newborn baby apparently is "novnaskita bebo".
- nova - new
- naskita - having been born (nasko - childbirth; naskiĝi - to be born; naski - to give birth)
Premature baby can be said "antaŭtempa bebo" (lit. before+time).
I'm not sure if that's canon (this is a constructed language after all, and people can make their own words using the various affixes at will), that's what I could find.