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  5. "Ĉu vi loĝas en Pollando, en …

"Ĉu vi loĝas en Pollando, en Eŭropo?"

Translation:Do you live in Poland, in Europe?

May 30, 2015



Why isn't poland spellt "Polando" ?


That would add irregularities to the spelling of the language. As it is, it is simply the combination of the two roots pol and land.

[deactivated user]

    Polo + Lando = Pololando. But if you are connecting roots, you can miss 'o' letter if you don't have problems to speech (So Pollando and Pololando should be correct). And I forgot. Esperanto words you must read as you write, so Pollando, not Polando. And Kio as Ki-o, not Kjo.


    Simply, you shouldn't use the letter o when you combine words because you use root, without ending -o.
    Too roots: pol and land.
    There is no such a word "Pololando" in Esperanto


    Teĥnically there is and it means the same.

    When combining two words by joining them together (compounding), one can (but doesn't have to) omit the grammatical ending (speech marker, desinence) of the first one, when it wouldn't make the word unpronounceable. However, there are no strict rules as for what makes a word unpronounceable so it is up to the speaker to decide. Also, when the choice of the grammatical affiliation of the first word wouldn't change the meaning of the compound, one uses the one with the noun modifier.

    So if you want to say “eating time, mealtime” you take the words manĝi and horo and combine them into manĝhoro and if you find it hard to pronounce you can go with equally correct manĝohoro (since it means the same as another, theoretical variant manĝihoro).

    As for the pronounceability: When the second word begins with a vowel or the root of the first one ends with a vowel, tradition of Esperanto describes these compounds as pronounceable and no marking is used. There are also many compounds which are thought traditionally to be unpronounceable without a desinence (noktomezo, fingromontri or vivovespero) or pronounceable without any desinence (vaporŝipo, jarcento or Pollando) but in the end, the decision is up to the one oneself.


    Thanks a lot! It's good advice


    The audio sounds like he pronounced it "Polando" (not too 'l's). Is that just me? I repeated it several times to try figure it out. I can kinda hear both but more "Polando". :/


    Maybe it's been updated by now, but it sounds like two separate l's to me.


    This is strangely disappointing to me. I've been so delighted that pronunciation in Esperanto is 100% regular, and that if you can spell a word you can pronounce it & vice versa. Now I learn that that's only mostly true.

    Mi scribos koleran leteron al Zamenhofo! :-)


    That should be "skribos," because Esperanto is, indeed, 100% regular and phonetic.


    @Datan0de: I'd like to help you but I don't really understand what is the problem. The pronunciation and the orthography in Esperanto ARE both 100% regular. What did you see in the comments above that made you think otherwise?


    Pollando = polo (“a Pole”) +‎ lando (“land”), means the land of poles ( la lando de poloj) I think

    [deactivated user]

      Yes, our first name of tribe was named 'Polanie' - men from poles.


      Esunchien is talking about the English noun “Pole” which means polo in Esperanto or “Polak” in Polish. :D

      (“Men from poles” XD)


      True, most of those words just add an "o" at the end of an english word.


      Why is Europe clarified? Is there a Poland anywhere else?

      [deactivated user]

        No, but a lot of USA people think it is a one of their states :)


        There are seven cities in five states named "Poland" in the United States. Poland is also the name of one of the four villages of Christmas Island.


        I live in the United States, and the only Poland I know of (until now, apparently) is the one in Europe. And, yes, I know the Polish-Duo team is on a vacation (after 30-some percent course completion! Great job!) and is well deserved, I'd really love to learn Polish!


        I remember going to Maine and seeing a sign that had a ton of different cities on it, and all of them were countries or other famous cities. There was China, Mexico, Paris...


        Most American place names that are not either American Indian words or Latin neologisms are simply European place names, sometimes with the word "New" in front of them. Some of them are quite charming, my favorite being Hindoostan, Indiana. Of course, many would find the name of my birthplace, Olympia, Washington, pretty silly.


        Is that really necessary? I didn't think this forum would be a place for any country bashing :-(


        I live very close to Poland, Ohio. When you give directions to newcomers, you have to specify which Poland you mean.


        Per the conversation below, there are places named Poland elsewhere, but I believe this example was simply created to encourage repetitive learning :)


        Jes, mi loĝas en Pollando!


        So, please, help get that Polish Duolingo up and running. I'm waiting for that one and Romanian with 'bated breath.


        I wish I could, but I don't think my English skills are enough to contribute to the course.


        That's too bad. It's the one Slavic language that has always given me difficulty, but the one I would like to read the most.


        Good to hear! Hopefully, the team will speed up soon, as the vacation are about to begin.


        It's not that easy. Even if your english is good enough, it needs a lot-lot-lot of time. I don't think that there are many people able to spend that much...


        Not to be confused with Poland on the moon.


        You'd be surprised how many times I've talked about Poland and people thought I was talking about the on the moon. It's a tricky subject.


        Can you refer to Poland as Polio (from polo, like ĉino → Ĉinio)?

        [deactivated user]

          Both (Polio and Pollando) are correct. Also Polujo or Pololando. But the Pollando is used more times.


          Polio? Like a disease? Dear God, that's worse than 'fartas'.


          The affix °-i- used to create country names is NOT OFFICIAL and therefore not commonly accepted. One argument against it (other that the main, that there already is unambiguous -uj- affix) is that already many words end with letters -io and using it to create country names makes the language confusing and some names offensive (exactly like that terrible °Polio).

          I'm proud citizen of Pollando (or Polujo) and I ain't no Heine–Medin disease!


          That's good. I don't feel like a person living in Polio, in spite of the fact, that I am, of course, proud of Hilary Koprowski :)


          When creating country names (not only “Poland”) with the -lando suffix I've never saw leaving the -o in the middle. Teĥnically it's correct, but customarily one always omits it.


          Many people nowadays use the °-i- affix to create country names, but bear in mind that it is NOT OFFICIAL and many people have pretty good reasons to advocate against using it: it creates some homophones (not all of them fortunate) and a big confusion with the country names which are not national-based (like Ĉili·o). If you want to know more, check the book Rusoj loĝas en Rusujo.

          But to answer your question: when creating country name from the word of nationality one can use -uj- or -land- affixes and there's no difference in meaning, so teĥnically you could use any of these two. However, normally one uses -uj- (like in Aŭstr·uj·o, Ĉeĥ·uj·o, German·uj·o, Hispan·uj·o, Kazaĥ·uj·o or Rus·uj·o) and the tradition of Esperanto (and the Akademio de Esperanto) recommends using -land- specifically to six countries: Finn·land·o, Pol·land·o, Skot·land·o, Svazi·land·o, Svis·land·o and Taj·land·o.


          weirdest sentence ever, it's like no one would ask you "Do you live in Poland in Europe?" ---> as if people are so dumb that they don't realise poland is in europe.


          Maybe this person has multiple homes, say one in Poland and one in Shanghai, and right now he's living in his Shanghai condo. When asked "Are you living in Poland?", he would obviously answer no. If you ask "Do you live in Poland, (when you are) in Europe?" he would answer yes.


          There are places called 'Poland' in both the US and Canada.


          I know. More realistically, you could just say "Do you live in Poland?", and if you really need to specify, "Poland, Europe" would probably be better.


          ... and "I am a strawberry" was more normal?


          I know countries are capitalized in Esperanto, but are regions like Europe capitalized or no?


          Ne, mi logxas en Brazilo, en Sud-Ameriko. :)


          Ne, mi loğas en Pollando, en Afriko.


          "Polujo" ŝajnas pli fundamenta.


          no, i live in poland in asia


          You know... Just in case you forgot Poland was in Europe


          i thought poland in azio


          Jes mi loĝas en Pollando en Euxropo


          Ne, mi logas en Pollando en Usono!


          I know it would sound weird but shouldn't it be polio?


          "Should" in what sense?


          at the tips section of this course it says countries from the old world should be the people group living there (polo) with uj added (polujo) or simplified uj becomes i so shouldn't it be polio then?


          Places named after its inhabiting nation/people can either use the suffix -uj- (or the later introduced suffix -i-), or be formed as a compound with land- (meaning ‘country’). Both ways are technically correct, but traditionally places tend to be called almost exclusively using only one of those methods.

          Most of them use the suffix (the traditional -uj- or the newer -i-), but for example in the case of Skot·land·o, Pol·land·o and Taj·land·o, the land- form is predominant and recommended.

          So although you would be understood, saying Pol·uj·o would raise some eyebrows. Saying Pol·i·o would raise even more of them, since polio- is also the medical prefix used in names of illnesses of the grey matter (e.g. in poliomjelito, ‘poliomyelitis’, commonly referred to in English simply as ‘polio’).

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