"Do you speak Esperanto?"
Translation:Ĉu vi parolas Esperanton?
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All languages are the type language such as la angla lingvo, often shortened to la angla. As for Esperanto or Esperanton, it is the exception, and is not preceaded with la.
For more, read the tips at https://www.duolingo.com/skill/eo/Languages/tips-and-notes
It is correcting me to "Esperanton" for the language as a direct object takes the accusative. I thought the word "esperante" means "hopefully" which could actually work in the sentence, so I can see how the logarithm could get confused if you did not capitalize Esperanto. Post script added later: Oh, I see you don't capitalize it in Esperanto. See amuzulo below.
esperi hope (verb)
I thought one who hopes is "esperulo" and someone who speaks Esperanto is "esperantisto" http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16967/16967-h/16967-h.htm
My other dictionary says that hopefully is "espereble", but I like your version better. http://esperanto-panorama.net/vortaro/eoen.htm
"esperante" seems as though you are saying "Esperanto-ly, or in an Esperanto way. I wonder why the adverb is used instead of using an adjective? I would have expected "esperanta" to mean the adjective Esperanto-ish, although "esperanta" would be confusing to Spanish speakers as that is their word for "hope"..