"The seasons are spring, summer, autumn and winter."
Translation:Mevsimler, ilkbahar, yaz, sonbahar ve kıştır.
Why is it kıştır? Is -tir the form -dir takes after a letter like ş? What are the letters that change for this particular situation? And it looks as if just the last word gets the -dir/-tir tacked on. Would it be incorrect to add that ending to the other words?
Yes, after a "ş", you use -tir. The suffixes that start with "d" or "c" change into "t" or "ç" after certain letters. There are a few mnemonics to memorize which letters trigger this change:
Fıstıkçı Şahap (Şahap the pistacchio seller)
Efe Paşa çok hasta (Efe Pasha is very ill)
Ketçap fahişesi (The ketchup prostitute)
When a word ends in one of the consonants in these phrases, any suffix that begins with a "d" or "c" will begin with a "t" or "ç" instead.
Regarding your last question; it would be incorrect indeed.
If you said: "Mevsimler ilkbahardır, yazdır, sonbahardır, kıştır.
That would be like saying: "The seasons are spring, are summer, are autumn, are winter.
Teşekkürler! I gave you two lingots for your reply. One for the memorable mnemonics. Who could forget those? And another for explaining what it would be like if I added the dir to the other words. Think of the two lingots as a high five times two.
In a German book, I saw Hayfış Postkuçe (Haifisch-Postkutsche = Shark postal coach), with a picture of a shark pulling a postal coach instead of horses... very memorable due to the bizarre image, at least for a German speaker!
İş denke das doyç ayne fantastişe şprağhe ist!
I've got one too! In English though:
A Çek hoo şuuts feik puup (A czech whore shoots fake poop) (British English pronunciation) ;p
You're right, it does ... even to a non-native speaker. Plus, it gives it symmetry, but still, it's quite a bit easier just to add it to the last word and since I barely type out the answer in enough time during a timed test, I'm not complaining.
for the second question, while speaking, one can add the ending to the other words, but it is informal.
For "ilkbahar" and "sonbahar", one way to distinguish and remember these similar looking words is to remember that another meaning for "bahar" is "blossom" so you can think of "ilkbahar" as literally "first-blossom (i.e. spring) and "sonbahar" as literally "last-blossom" (i.e. autumn)
It separates the subject "the seasons" from the predicate "(are) spring, summer, autumn, and winter" and makes the sentence structure clearer.
It' grammatically correct, but it sounds very weird. We could maybe say: İlkbahar, yaz, sonbahar ve kış birer mevsimdir.
Birer means "each and every one of".
"Mevsimler, bahar, yaz, sonbahar ile kasımda" was one of the options, an incorrect one, of course. But, out of curiousity, what does the word "bahar" mean?
What does the word "bahar" mean?? Does the "son" in sonbahar mean "after .... smthg"?
The best way I can think of to explain it is to say that it is a suffix used in Turkish to express "to be" for the following points of view:
he/she/it is -dir/-tir -dır/-tır -dür/tür -dur/-tur (third person singular)
they are -dirler/-tirler -dırlar/-tırlar -dürler-/türler -durlar/-turlar (third person plural)
You can read more about this aspect of the Turkish language at the link below:
After visiting that page, you also may find the discussion at the following link useful:
Hope that helps.