Hi Nick, "la" It works with both gender, either female gender or male.
la domo. = The house = La casa
la taverno. = The tavern = La taberna
I hope to have you helped If there are doubts or mistakes please comment
Greetings and luck
He was talking about spanish. In spanish you say "El libro" but in esperanto you say "La libro". Quite confusing.
I think Christian was pointing out that "la" is not feminine in Esperanto which is something they will have to get over in this language.
Because the book is the subject (not object).
A necessary stupid question, but what is the difference between the subject and object?
I have a book then
I is the subject, the one that has, and
a book is the direct object, the thing that is had. Only active verbs can have direct objects (these are called transitive verbs) but not all active verbs take direct objects (these are called intransitive verbs). Some verbs can be either, depending on context.
Examples of transitive verbs:
He eats an apple. (
He is the subject, doing the eating;
an apple is the direct object, being eaten)
They finished their homework. (
They is the subject, doing the finishing;
their homework is the direct object, being finished)
Examples of intransitive verbs:
We swim. (
We is the subject, doing the swimming)
You will fall. (
You is the subject, doing the falling)
Not all verbs are active.
to be is what's called a copula, a stative verb, or a linking verb. This kind of verb takes a subject complement. That is, whatever comes after the verb serves to describe the subject.
Examples of stative verbs:
She looks tired. (
tired describes the subject
The cake smells delicious. (
delicious describes the subject
"I love me." "I" is the subject of the verb "love" and is doing the loving. "Me" is the object of the love of the subject.
Is that how you tell if you add an "-n" to the end? If it's the subject it's libron but if its the object it's libro? (:
Other way around. With no marking, it's nominative or dative. With the -n suffix, it's accusative.
When do you know to put -o and when to put -on? I'm totally confused, please try to explain as simply as possible.
-o is the ending for all nouns. -n is the accusative ending, which means it's the direct object.
La libro estas granda. - The book is big. Here, "book" is the subject.
Mi havas la libron. - I have the book. Here "book" is the direct object.
The -n suffix marks the accusative case, which most of the time is the direct object of a transitive verb. It is the thing that receives the action.
Mi amas lin. I love him. Whom do I love? Who is loved?
Li amas min. He loves me. Whom does he love? Who is loved?
Verbs like "esti" aren't even transitive/intransitive, as that only applies to active verbs. Verbs like "esti" are stative verbs. They serve to compare or equate the subject with the predicate. What comes after the verb receives no action, but rather relates back to the subject.
La libro estas granda. The book is big. How would you describe the book?
In Esperanto, you can also turn adjectives into verbs. "La libro grandas" is equivalent to "La libro estas granda".
I'm not sure which part you're referring to, but yes.
Mi legas la libron. I read the book.
Mi legas la librojn. I read the books.
La libro grandas. The book is big.
La libroj grandas. The books are big.
The subject is in the nominative case.
The -n suffix is only for the accusative case. If a noun phrase is the direct object of a verb, then you would put it in the accusative.
Mi legas libron = I read a book.
Here, "libron" is the direct object of "legas". It is the thing being read.
"Mi" is the subject, so it is "mi" and not "min".
Mi amas vin = I love you.
Vin amas mi = I love you.
Vi amas min = You love me.
Min amas vi = You love me.