There is no "The" in Turkish as word. But we have "-i,-ı" suffixes comes after than word in sentence which do similar thing. However, it is not used like in English and it needs really hard work to get it right. For me, I still make mistake in English when I use "definite article".
A little example: "Buraya masa getirin." -> "Bring a table here." "Buraya masayı getirin." -> "Bring the table here."
Turkish does not use articles "a" or "the", but in English we must add an article and Duolingo will put "bir" when they want us to use the indefinite article "a" or "an", so here use definite articles. The definite article will be marked for a direct object with an Accusative ending added to a direct object.
Maybe the other way, Maybe Arabic "Kenz = كنز" comes from Persian "Genç = گنج" & Because in Arabic there is no alphabet "G = گ" then they change this alphabet to "K = ک" Usually.
Also they change "ژ(~ج) = Zh = ç" to "ز = Z" Usually, because in Arabic there is no "Zh = ç" so they change the alphabet to "Z".
Yes, Turkish does not have any articles, but in English you must put them. If Duolingo does not put "bir" with the subject then put "the". If they do put "bir", then put "a" if a consonant sound starts the noun in English or "an" if the English noun starts with a vowel sound. The direct object will have an Accusative suffix only if "the" is needed.
Those are different conjugations for different pronouns. Even in English we say "I eat", but "he eats", in Turkish there are more different endings for more of the pronouns.
"ben yerim" = "I eat"
"sen yersin" = "you eat" (sngular you)
"o yer" = "he eats" or "she eats" or even "it eats"
"biz yeriz" = "we eat"
"siz yersiniz" = "you eat" (plural you)
"onlar yerler" = "they eat" but really they usually put "onlar yer" or "yerler"
You can look up any Turkish verb here. This present tense is called Aorist and it is the Affirmative form. They have another set of conjugations for negative sentences, for questions and negative questions.
You need to put "yemek" or "içmek" for the verb and "aorist" for the tense.
Pronouns are not required since the verb endings show which pronoun is meant and for 3rd person plural, if there is a plural subject then they can just use the plain singular "yer" form. Duolingo is teaching the pronouns now so do include them at the beginning of this course.
The imperative form "Eat!" = "Ye!" while "Drink! = "Iç!"
The infinitive form is "yemek" for "to eat" and "içmek" = "to drink".
"ben içerim" = "I drink"
"sen içersin" = "you drink" (singular)
"o içer" = "he drinks" or "she drinks" or even "it drinks"
"biz içeriz" = "we drink"
"siz içersiniz" = "you drink" (plural)
"onlar içer" or "içerler" = "they drink"
No, "small" is about size. Someone who is very young is usually small compared to someone who is older, but not always. We say someone is your little brother if he is younger than you even if he has grown bigger than you, but that is a special use of "little" which is usually about size.
That depends on what you mean. There are definite articles in many languages, but there can be different forms depending on the gender (masculine, feminine or neuter) and number (singular or plural) and in some languages also depending on the case ( Nominative, Accusative, Dative...) of the noun. In Turkish there is a suffix added if a noun in Accusative case (diirect object) is definite or specific.