"The German comes from Germany."
Translation:La germano venas el Germanio.
With regards to "de" and "el", my feeling is that I'd use "de" for the place you were born etc., but "el" if you had actually just arrived from there.
'El' has the sense of 'out of', which sounds a bit strange to an English speaker, I thin
It seems there are no obligatory rules in Esperanto: http://bertilow.com/pmeg/gramatiko/propraj_nomoj/majuskloj.html (in Esperanto)
This makes sense in Esperanto but lacks context in English (people? language?) because it's a redundant sentence. Wait until you see the opposite question asked in Esperanto and then you can build and practice the proper endings.
Are demonyms like germano, franco, etc. gender-neutral or are there forms like germanino, francino, etc.?
Yes to both.
In modern usage, germano refers to a person from Germany, male or female. Since most of the time, the sex of the person is irrelevant to their being from Germany, I would say that this is the preferred form.
If, on the other hand, you feel the need to explicitly refer to the sex of this German person, you can use germanino for the ladies.
For the gents, you have three choices: You can be exceptionally sexist and declare that germano is male because that's how Zamenhof wrote the language (and thus can never be wrong). You can use the "official" but perhaps one of the ugliest forms in Esperanto, virgermano. Or you can use the unoffical (Eeeek, heresy! But much more satisfying to my ears) germaniĉo. If you do use germaniĉo, then just beware of angry lynch-mobs of purists running after you screaming at the top of their lungs, because Esperanto can never change (see option 1).
Is there no word "eliras"? Why are words like germano and usonano not capitalized, but Esperantisto apparently capitalized?
if "La germana" is short for "the german language" ("La germana lingvo"), why can't I say?: La germana venas el Germanio
Because "la germana" nearly always implies "lingvo" (just for the reason of being so frequently used in this context) and not "homo/vir(in)o/persono". If you want to say "(the) German (language) comes from Germany" then you can say "La germana venas el Germanio". Otherwise you would need specific context, e.g. "la viroj venas el diversaj sxtatoj. La greka (viro) venas el grekio, la franca (viro) venas el francio. La germana (viro) venas el Germanio."
Thanks. That was what I wanted / thought to say: The German (language) comes from Germany (La germana venas el Germanio). But I understand now that that was not what the exercise wanted me to say. Thanks again.
Woah, this is the second time I'm seeing the 'inhabitant' using old world rules and the country using new world rules. Am I missing something?