Many of the words that Zamenhof chose was not from a single language.
One of the criterias for Zamenhofs choice of words was that they should have close resemblance to words from as many languages as possible.
So that french, italian, latin, spanish, and portuguese had similar words for the same or close to similar action, was probably his reason for choosing this word.
Some times the words are so close to the word in one of the languages, that it seems like it is taken directly from that language, even if the choice was affected by many languages.
As e.g. the word "ofte" which have the exact same meaning, spelling and pronunuciation as the danish/norwegians "ofte", except for maybe a tiny difference in the accent. But also close to: german "oft", english "often" and swedish "ofta"
So it would be more correct to say that "auskulti" comes from the romance language group and "ofte" from the north germanic language group, than from single languages, even if they seem to come directly from latin and danish/norvegian respectively.
In English if someone was ignoring me and I said "he's not listening," I would mean that he wasn't listening to that particular thing that I was saying at the moment. If I said "he doesn't listen," that would mean that he characteristically ignores people whenever they are talking. How do Esperanto speakers differentiate between something being done at the moment and something being done continually?
"to hear" would be
aŭdi in esperanto.
While listening often implies hearing, it adds the notation of paying attention to it as well.
For example in order to understand, follow or simply enjoy it — like listening to music:
However you can sometimes also see it being used without hearing. You could listen to music just by feeling the rhythm/vibrations (the way the deaf listen to music) Oni povas aŭskulti muzikon sen aŭdi ĝin!
Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto: aŭskult'um'i
"to clinically examine the internal sounds of the organism, by using one's ear or by using a stethoscope"
(Google Translate, but komencantajn korektojn by me)