I want to know more about the abbreviations used in English ..
Could anyone help me?
I'm --- I am --- Exemplo: I'm waiting for my friend.
I'll --- I will --- Exemplo: I'll see you tomorrow.
I'd --- I had / I would --- Exemplo: I'd better leave now. OU I'd already eaten by the time he arrived.
I've --- I have --- Exemplo: I've worked here for many years.
You're --- You are --- Exemplo: You're joking!
You'll --- You will --- Exemplo: You'll be sorry!
You'd --- You had / would --- Exemplo: You'd left before he arrived, hadn't you? OU You'd better hurry up.
You've --- You have --- Exemplo: You've been to London many times.
He's --- He is / has --- Exemplo: He's on the phone now. OU He's been playing tennis since 10 this morning.
He'll --- He will --- Exemplo: He'll be here tomorrow.
He'd --- He had / would --- Exemplo: He'd prefer to meet you later in the week. OU He'd finished before the meeting began.
She's --- She is / has --- Exemplo: She's watching TV at the moment. OU She's had a lot of trouble lately.
She'll --- She will --- Exemplo: She'll be at the meeting.
She'd --- She had / would --- Exemplo: She'd been working for two hours when he telephoned. OU She'd like to have a glass of wine.
It's --- It is / has --- Exemplo: It's been long time since we saw each other last. OU It's very difficult to concentrate.
It'll --- It will --- Exemplo: It'll be here soon.
It'd --- It would / had --- Exemplo: It'd be difficult to say no. OU It'd been a long time.
We're --- We are --- Exemplo: We're working hard on the Smith account this week.
We'll --- We will --- Exemplo: We'll begin when he arrives.
We'd --- We had / would --- Exemplo: We'd better hurry up if we want to catch the train. OU We'd finished the meeting before you arrived.
We've --- We have --- Exemplo: We've been waiting for you!
They're --- They are --- Exemplo: They're studying German this afternoon.
They'll --- They will --- Exemplo: They'll finish soon if they concentrate.
They'd --- They had / would --- Exemplo: They'd eaten their lunch when she stopped by to say hello. OU They'd rather not come to the meeting.
They've --- They have --- Exemplo: They've just purchased a new home.
There's --- There is / has --- Exemplo: There's a hotel in the next town. OU There's been too many telephone calls today!
There'll --- There will --- Exemplo: There'll be a price to pay!
There'd --- There had / would --- Exemplo: There'd better be a good explanation for this. OU There'd be some reason for that.
That's --- That is / has --- Exemplo: That's been on my mind lately. OU That's why I can't come.
That'll --- That will --- Exemplo: That'll happen sooner than you think.
That'd --- That had / would --- Exemplo: That'd be the reason why. OU That'd happened before my time.
aren't --- are not --- Exemplo: They aren't coming next week.
can't --- can not --- Exemplo: I can't understand you.
couldn't --- could not --- Exemplo: He couldn't get his shoes on!
didn't --- did not --- Exemplo: We didn't visit Rome. We went straight to Florence.
doesn't --- does not --- Exemplo: He doesn't play golf.
don't --- do not --- Exemplo: They don't like cheese.
haven't --- have not --- Exemplo: Haven't you been to London?
hadn't --- had not --- Exemplo: I hadn't thought of that!
hasn't --- has not --- Exemplo: She hasn't telephoned yet.
isn't --- is not --- Exemplo: She isn't listening to you.
mustn't --- must not --- Exemplo: Children mustn't play with fire.
needn't --- need not --- Exemplo: You needn't worry about that.
shouldn't --- should not --- Exemplo: You shouldn't smoke cigarettes.
wasn't --- was not --- Exemplo: I wasn't joking when I said that.
weren't --- were not --- Exemplo: They weren't invited to the party.
won't --- will not --- Exemplo: I won't be able to attend the conference.
wouldn't --- would not --- Exemplo: She wouldn't be surprised if he showed up at the party.
Também temos o famoso "ain't" que é considerada a palavra mais preguiçosa do inglês. E não é considerada gramaticalmente "correta". Use com moderação:
ain't --- am/are/is/do/does/did/have/has not --- Exemplo: I ain't got no money.
Perceba que com "ain't" é possível a negação dupla (que não existe na norma culta do inglês).
Cuidado para não paracer muito "ebonics". Haha. A não ser que vc queira.
When you say abbreviations, are you refering to contractions? For example: You are - You're; I would - I'd.