"We have not had enough students to open the courses."
Translation:Não temos tido alunos suficientes para abrir cursos.
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Both possibilities are accounted for in the system (with and without "the" and "os"). I suppose Portuguese tends to drop the article more commonly in this instance than English, but if you translate the sentence literally the system will accept it as a valid answer.
That won't happen again, but that's correct: the Portuguese compound tenses (ter + past participle) don't really or don't always match the English perfect tenses (especially the present compound, which can swing from "present perfect" to "present perfect continuous" depending on the meaning behind the action in Portuguese).
In any case, the preterite is accepted here because the present perfect invokes an action that started in the past, and Portuguese usually uses the preterite to explain that idea (as long as the action has been fully completed by the time you speak):
- I've eaten a hot dog. Eu comi um cachorro quente.
- I've made this tool all by myself. Eu fiz esta ferramenta sozinho/sozinha.
In quite a few cases (and here too, in a way), the present compound tense carries with it an idea of progressive action, which is more well-captured by the English "present perfect continuous":
- Eu tenho ficado mais em casa ultimamente. I've been staying at home more, lately.
- Eu tenho comido bem nas últimas semanas. I've been eating well in the last few weeks.