You use the first one to express time BEFORE the 30 minutes which is basically just the accusative form + geçiyor
Example: It is 5:05 - Saat beşi beş geçiyor
(By the way, this same logic applies for the word "biri")
For the other one, you are using the dative suffix "to" + the corresponding number because it is AFTER 30 minutes
Example: It is six minutes to five. - Saat beşe altı var
Hope that helped
Var/geçiyor: used when telling the time only. Kala/geçe: is used when you are talking about the time when the action occurs at. Eg.: i go to school at X= uses kala/geçe ~ the time is = uses var/geçiyor.
♡ Numbers from 1 to 29 + quarters (çeyrek): takes geçe/geçiyor (past) or var/kala (to). + no.s: 1 to 29 affect the main hour with suffix additions.
It is like Y after/to X, when y is the minutes or quarter and x is the hour, and since Y is dependent on X we will put the suffix link indicator to x
♡♡ Numbers 31 to 59 + half (buçuk): doesnt need any past/to indicators. + doesnt affect the main hour with suffix additions.
Its like saying: X and Y when x is the hour and y is the minutes (31 to 59) or half, and both are independent.
I dont know if I made things more complicated or not!!
♡♡♡ examples: It is five past one = biri beş geçiyor // it is five to one = bire beş var // at five past one = biri beş geçe // at five to one = bire beş kala /◇◇◇/ it is one and a half = bir buçuk // it is one and fifty five = bir elli beş // at one and a half = bir buçukta // at one and fifty five = bir elli beşte
mmm, hoping İ did it right up there, İyi şanslar
Throughout the whole course in the slow mode, this lady speaker has occasionally pronounced the final letter or letters incorrectly. In this case it sounds like "guy" not "gel." Another common mis'pronunciation has been a sibilant "s" after a final r e.g "__ irss". I have found the male speaker rather rapid at "normal" pace and excellent at slow pace.
Sorry for the bad tips display.. let me try rephrasing things out: when you see var/kala then it means how many mins (stay for/remains to) that hour.
X y kala means at y minutes remaining to reach x hour.
Dokuz = 9, beş = 5, therefore: dokuza bed kala = at 5 minutes (remaining to/to/before/stays for) 9 = 8:55
If you want to say 7:55 it will be sekize beş kala
Hope that helped a little.