So apparently the two senses of "kosten" are separate words etymologically. "Kosten" in the sense of "to cost (money)" is an old borrowing from Latin and so has the same origin as English "cost," Spanish "costar," etc. But "kosten" in the sense of "taste" is a native Germanic root, with relatives like Danish "kost" 'food', Swedish "frukost" 'breakfast', and Old English "costian" 'to try, tempt, prove'. This Germanic root is the cognate of Latin "gustus/gustare" 'to taste'.
Excellent research! Btw, the Swedish "frukost" is literally 'early food' as "fru" is an old Germanic word similar to the German "früh" and you've already provided the background on "kost". Interestingly, "fru" now means 'wife' in Swedish and you'd use "tidig" for 'early', which itself is built from the root "tid" 'time'. "Breakfast" on the other hand is literally the meal where you "break your fast", having not eaten since your last meal while you've been asleep.
It's from a vampire story. http://www.wattpad.com/6096779-im-bann-des-j%C3%A4gers-kapitel3-don (third chapter.)
And yes, it means "He will taste the blood."
Googling these strange sentences is sometimes rewarding.
There's a related idiom Blut lecken (literally, to lick blood) which means something like "to become enthusiastic", originally about a hunt -- e.g. Zuerst wollte er nicht mit der neuen Modelleisenbahn spielen, aber nachdem er erst einmal Blut geleckt hatte, war er gar nicht mehr davon wegzubekommen. "At first, he didn't want to play with the new model railway, but as soon as he had 'tasted blood' (had the first experience, which made him enthusiastic), you could hardly pry him away from it."
This is a weird sentence. The word "kosten" usually means "to cost" and it can be used for "to taste" as well. Although this is rarely used and is something you'd say if someone made a really fancy dinner: "Ich werde die Suppe kosten" or something.
It's good to know in the back of your head that "kosten" can mean taste and it's found in some words like "Verkostung" (tasting sample), but I wouldn't use it in normal conversations. And it implies that it's probably something very nice you're about to taste, so the blood example is poorly chosen.
The identical word exists in Polish "kosztowac" and has the same connotations. The first time I ever heard it used in the second sense I was a bit taken aback, but then realized it was in fairly common use (this is what you get when you learn Polish in Chicago then actually go to where it is spoken correctly) They used it in the context of "try a little tiny bit (of food/drink) just to see if you like it" and I assume it is a borrowing from German.
No, it's not awkward with the article. It's a completely difference sentence, though.
"He will taste blood" means that he'll have to make a superior physical effort of some sort. "He will taste the blood" means what it says; that he'll put blood in his mouth.
The sentences require completely different contexts, but they are both correct.
I'd say no -- kosten is "try", like probieren.
schmecken is "taste" in the sense of "sense flavours".
The distinction is a bit like see/look or hear/listen -- schmecken is like see/hear and is more passive or just describes an impression on your senses, while kosten/probieren is like look/listen and is more active: a deliberate decision to sense something.
So "He will taste the blood" can have two translations:
- Er wird das Blut kosten. (He will sample the blood deliberately to determine what it tastes like)
- Er wird das Blut schmecken. (While eating something, he will be able to discern that there is blood in it - even though that's not what he set out to do.)
To taste in German is "Probieren". Kosten in my opinion is a bad word choice for taste. Kosten refers to cost of something. When I read the question, I immediately thought of "He will cost blood", in other words, it will be deemed "expensive" or it will cause a lot of "pain" or "inconvenience" - eg like his actions have caused a lot of blood, sweat and tears. In Serbo-Croatian cijena is cost whereas probati is to sample, taste or try.