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"Una," with an/a is feminine. "Un" is masculine. Una mujer, a woman. Un hombre, a man.
Why would you sometimes say "yo soy" as opposed to just "soy"? Don't they both mean I am.
Yes they both mean I am. It doesn't really matter if you say either of them. They just want you to know you can use both of them. Spanish usually drops the pronoun, so I think "soy" would be used more often.
Mujer directly translates to woman. Only when used with a possessive (Ex: Es mi mujer), can mujer really mean wife. It's much like "my woman" can mean my wife, girlfriend, lover, etc. It suggests a romantic, but unspecified relationship. In my opinion, mi esposa is more proper, but there's nothing necessarily derogatory about mi mujer.