[Grammar] Consonant Mutation
Consonants often change at the end of words depending on whether it is followed by a vowel or a consonant. If they are followed by a vowel, they will generally change into voiced consonants. For example:
This means: p → b t → d k → ğ ç → c
This rule in general does not affect single syllable words, but there are exceptions of course. You will even come across exceptions to vowel harmony in loanwords from Arabic, Farsi, and French. These must be learned as you encounter them. In the meantime, happy learning and kolay gelsin.
"You will even come across exceptions to vowel harmony in loanwords from Arabic, Farsi, and French."
And English. ;-)
Is there any rule at all about 1-syllable words? It seems pretty random to me.
OK, like, çöp -> çöpü, saç -> saçı but also tat -> tadı, cep -> cebi. Would it be taç -> taçı or tacı? (Crown.)
It also always amuses me that it happens even for some classic names; Zeynep -> Zeynep'e (pronounced Zeynebe), Ahmet -> Ahmet'e (pr. Ahmede). If you're name is Phillip, do you pronounce Phillip'e like fillibe?
I would say: Filibe. (With a single L, too).
Sometimes, there are regional differences too, btw. For example, when I'm hungry I always say "acım" and get chuckled at since it should be "açım". I also say "kulbu" when it should be "kulpu".
It's not oh-so important for general comprehension. Learn them one by one and don't be afraid to make mistakes.
There really isn't any logic to that part of the language. You just have to learn it (it will normally tell you in a dictionary). It ıs definitely tacı.
As for foreign names, I keep the original pronunciation at all times, so the p would be maintained. This normally only happens to Turkish names. :)
Easiness of pronounciation of 1-syllable words' other letters: çöBü is difficult but taTı is also difficult.