Can't "nur" be used as only or just as well? Is there any functional difference? Or is "jxus" mean just as in "just a little bit ago"?
Yes. "jus" = "just now" ; "nur" = "only"
Ah, so here is a case of English requiring adjective-noun agreement: "that word" becomes "those words". Just that Esperanto does it consistently for every adjective.
I swear the guy says "tiun" instead of "tiujn"
Esperanto has no exceptions, huh?
I was trying hard to deduce what the verb "ĵus" might mean.
Appeared to be not a verb at all!
I mean, that kind of makes sense. if ĵus was a verb, that would mean that the root would be "ĵ-", and I don't think a single letter can be a root
Not an exception. "All words ending in -us are verbs" isn't a rule. The rule is "To make a verb conditional, end it with -us."