"Is this the book that was translated recently?"
Translation:Yeni çevrilen kitap bu mu?
Literal translation: Is the newly translated book this? So here, the subject is whole of "the newly translated book" or "yeni çevrilen kitap". And bu is the indirect object. This is simply an "is A B?" type of sentence. You can switch them and say "Bu, yeni çevrilen kitap mı?" That wouldn't change the meaning since "A is B" = "B is A"
No, they are not interchangeable. Çevirmek = to translate. Çevrilmek = to be translated (passive voice).
Ben bu kitabı çevirdim = I translated this book. Bu kitap benim tarafımdan çevrildi = This book was translated by me.
Bu kitap çevrildi mi? Evet, o çevrildi. = Has this book been translated? Yes, it has been translated.
Çevrilen kitap bu mu? = Is this the book (that is) translated?
Bu kitabı çeviren o mu? = Is he the one who translated this book?