How about this? Judge is someone who knows the law. Judge breathes, judge can even drinks coffee. The question is, how could you mention "the" in Turkish? How do you say you are talking about a specific judge, not judges in general?
All of those sentences you wrote don't really make sense in English :) You would have to say "A judge is someone who knows the law" etc. These two sentences are the same in Turkish :)
"Judge drinks coffee." This sentence in English is grammatically correct only if you are referring to a specific person as "Judge." As in, you are using "judge" as a proper noun to replace that person's name. This is sometimes done as a show of respect to judges. (I am an American lawyer.) Otherwise, you need an article, i.e., "the."