"Are they having lunch?"
Translation:Ĉu ili tagmanĝas?
What sentences are you having trouble with?
In this case -as a verb ending. Tagmanĝas means "have lunch."
- -a = adjective
- -o = noun
- -n = shows the direct object.
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I've never been able to understand this type of stuff. -as a verb ending. Verb is an action. To eat is an action. To eat in Esperanto is Mangi (can't do the accents) however, in this particular case, for no reason whatsover, even though to eat is an action and to eat in Esperanto is mangi, this word ends in -as. Mangas. For no reason. It makes me want to rip my hair out.
I think English is the problem here. When we say "having lunch", we really mean "to eat lunch." Are they lunching? Ĉu ili tagmanĝas?
I would encourage you to work through a short grammar course in Esperanto to get some of these details down. You could try https://free-esperanto-course.net -- which pairs you up with a free tutor. There's also a video course on YouTube which goes together with this course.
The system is simple enough, but there's no reason to try to guess it from examples. Do the above-linked course and Duolingo at the same time and you'll get a lot more out of it.
There's every reason. They're having lunch, They are doing the action which involves consuming lunch. Tagmanĝo - lunch. Tagmanĝas eating lunch, tagmanĝi - to eat lunch. We don't say 'they are to eat lunch' we say 'they are eating lunch'. A closer match to English may be vespermanĝas - eating dinner or dining. Ili vespermanĝas - they are dining.