Remember, the "es" ending for correlatives indicates possession.
kies = whose
ties = that one's
ies = somebody's
cxies = everybody's
nenies = nobody's
I find this table helpful: http://donh.best.vwh.net/Esperanto/correlatives.html
It's here now: http://literaturo.org/HARLOW-Don/Esperanto/correlatives.html
Don Harlow died in 2008; I'm glad his work is being preserved.
Thanks so much! It is so much easier to understand and memorize in a table. Mi amas tio!!!
I wonder whether I'll EVER get these pesky little words into my head! Anybody got any good memory tricks? Or simple explanations of how these words were figured out?
Like: -o endings = things = like nouns; -a endings = kind of thing = describes a noun = like adjectives; -am = like a.m. (time)
I am really floundering here!
How's it coming? It takes time to learn 50 words. I do have some hints, but I can't find it quickly. I'm wondering what your progress has been in the last 5 months.
I've seen this sentence as having both 'tio' and 'tiu' in it, and being translated as the same thing. ???
English is a lesser language in this respect. I have not fully grasped the full difference between tio and tiu myself. But from what I understand tiu refers to a single known thing or person (most likely involving pointing), while tio refers to an abstract thing.
But I could be wrong.
As far as I know, "tio" refers to "that" as of something vague and imprecise. "Tiu" refers to "that" as of something specific, something out of several defined things. I'm a native Spanish speaker, so I understand a little more about these differences. "Tio" would be translated to "eso", and "tiu" would be translated to "ese/esa".
Kio estas tio? Tio estas libro. ¿Qué es eso? Eso es un libro. What is that? That is a book. (We don't even know what the thing is, so we're talking about something vague, not specified so far).
Kiu estas tiu? Tiu estas libro. ¿Cuál es ése? Ése es un libro. What is that one? That one is a book. (As in: here, look at this array of things, then you see the book, without necessarily knowing it's a book, and ask: "Kiu estas tiu?").
I don't know how else I could exemplify that, but I hope it's a little helpful.