O brasileiro sempre chamou os nativos dos Estados Unidos da America de "americanos". A palavra "estadunidense" foi criada por aqueles que acham que todos que nasceram no continente americano são "americanos" e portanto seria injusto e errado chamar somente os nascidos nos Estados Unidos de "americanos". Eu chamado os americanos de americanos, mesmo. Essa troca de palavras faz parte da política politicamente correta que existe hoje no mundo.
In order of frequency you would have miles ahead "americano". The second, almost unused, would be "norte-americano" and miles behind them, only alive in some ideological minds, you would find "estadunidense". Estadunidense, although more geographically correct, is highly ideological. And to irritate these nazi grammar people even more, you can find brazilians refering to the USA as "América" ("Eu estive na América e gostei muito")... :-)
Lots of people call the United States in America just "America" all the time, whether that's right or wrong. Personally I agree with Charles Darwin who referred to parts of South America as "America" in his diary "Voyage of the Beagle", that he kept on his well known trip exploring the coast of America , the Galapagos Islands etc.
I used to say just "ingles" but when I need to be specific, I used to say "Inglês americano" and only for curiosity, when the english is from england, I say "inglês britânico" , when is from australia , I say "ingles australiano" and is from South Africa, I say "ingles da Africa do sul"
It belongs to the same class of words as "canadense" (Canadian) so the most literal translation would probably be the rather strange "United States-ian", but in reality the best translation is context dependent. Three native speakers in this thread have mentioned that it is not used a lot in Brazil, but it could still be a useful adjective when "americano/a" doesn't seem focussed enough and I've seen it used many times in webpages I've (tried to) read.
That's a good point, Davu. Sometimes "americano" can be insufficient. But I still hear more often people saying "norte-americano" although geographically it is inaccurate. I have these links you may find interesting. Here (http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Povo_dos_Estados_Unidos) you should look for the "Gentílico" topic. Here (http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estados_Unidos) look for the topic "Etimologia" as it mentions the frequency of the terms. Finally, this one (http://veja.abril.com.br/blog/sobre-palavras/consultorio/americano-norte-americano-ou-estadunidense/) is really balanced, although the pool at the end seems to deny everything I am saying.
Ah, thank you. Yes, the poll result was surprising, I guess there must be a lot of political correct people reading "Veja". Talking of being politically correct, I think I'll do my best to avoid using "ianque" instead of one of the other terms. :-)
It does seem pointless using "inglês estadunidense" rather than "inglês americano" though.
I use "Brit" on language forums like this as it's a lot more convenient than "British person" and "Briton" sounds a bit like an ancient Briton (unfortunately we don't really have a generally accepted noun). I've also got the option of "Scot" but sometimes I need "Brit".
But I agree with you that "yank" is generally pejorative. And I don't think you'll hear "yankee" much in the UK.
I can't believe I wrote "pool" instead of "poll"... What a shame... Well, Veja is one of the most important magazines in Brazil and is full of political correct people like all the press everywhere. In my point of view, using "estadunidense" is not merely political correct, is more a political statement. If you hear it you are very likely to be talking to a person full of "antiamericanismo", which is a little bit ironic since it should be called "antiestadunidismo" :-P "Ianque" is very rarely used and it makes me think of those protesters with banners saying "Yanks go home". Sounds so old fashioned to me, it tastes like 1960's. Does it sound offensive to americans to be called "ianques"? Talking about chosing an adjective for "inglês", maybe they think it would be necessary to be political correct to other English speakers in the Americas (like "inglês canadense" or "inglês jamaicano"). But don't let the grammar nazis bother you. If you say "americano" in Brazil, everyone you would like to be close to can understand you are talking about United States. However, changing "Estados Unidos" for "América" will sound a little bit snob ("metido") for some people. I know it seems contradictory but I would avoid it.
Welcome back, Adriano.
The term "Yankee" is regional in the US. If you are American living overseas, you will be called a Yankee. In the US, the geographical area where you expect to be called a Yankee shrinks.
It would be highly unlikely for an American in the South to think of himself as a "Yankee". In New England, we embrace Yankee*; it is used everywhere - in ads and incorporated into the names of companies and streets: Yankee Spirits, Yankee Highway, Yankee Plumbers, Yankee Candle Co, etc.
*There's a caveat. A "New England Yankee" is someone of anglo-saxon descent.
Emeyr, nice to talk to you again. Thank you very much for that information. The Oxford dictionary says it's "slightly offensive" but I remembered that baseball team and I don't think they would choose an offensive name.
Davu, I can tell you that gringo doesn't have intrinsic bad connotations. Of course it can be used to insult depending on how you use it (context, intonation, body language and so).
And yes, I did it again. I should have typed Yankee... In Portuguese we have few final consonants. In Brazil we most of time pronounce only the final "r" (in some regions the same sound as the r in English car) and the final "s". The final m/n tend to make the previous vocal nasal. The final "L" became a real "u" here (people here is always mixing "mal" and "mau" because of that). So, I think is impossible for us to transliterate a final "k" sound without adding a short "ee" after. As a matter of fact, voiceless consonants get a little "ee" here... Example: the car tires are called "pneus" (short for pneumáticos). But we actually pronounce it as it was written "pineus" (Portuguese "i" sound). Lawyer is "advogado" but we actually say (think of Portuguese sound of the vocals) "adivogado" or even "adêvogado" (which is perceived as not very cult).
Thanks again for another very full answer. Did you know there is a name for the addition of vowels to make things easier to pronounce? It is called "epenthesis":
Here in the Southern United States (Georgia), Yankee is generally only used in the phrase "damn Yankees", referring to Northerners and New Englanders a little bit derisively and a little bit humorously... But when I lived in Chicago, Yankee was pretty much only used when speaking in the historical context of the American Revolution or American Civil War.
No need to apologize for typos. I'm not as honest as you and simply edit them out if/when I notice them in my own writing. :-)
I'm British so I only have the vaguest idea about just how offensive "Yankee" is in the present day USA. I know I'm not particularly keen on being called a "Limey" but "Brit", apart from sounding ugly, is no problem. I've noticed travel books often try to persuade visitors to Brazil that the word "Gringo" is just a friendly nickname for foreigners.
By the way, how would you write "Yank" to force the word to be pronounced as in English? My guess is that no matter how you try to spell it you will always hear a Brazilian add a little "ee" to the end of the word making it more like "Yankee". Anyway, thanks for the discussion and advice.