Norwegian is a V2 language, so it's mostly like German, with the usual exception of questions and imperative sentences (and a few other rare cases).
It would indeed be possible to say "Kylling spiser vi på fredag", because 'vi' is a subject pronoun. "Kylling spiser oss på fredag" would mean the chicken is eating us, however.
We are having chicken this Friday.
Vi spiser kylling på fredag.
On Friday, we are having chicken.
På fredag spiser vi kylling.
It's possible to say "denne fredagen"; people do say "denne uka", for instance. But I think it's more idiomatic to say simply "på fredag".
With many words for time periods (but not days of the week), it's possible to say "i". For instance:
"i dag" = "this day" = "today"
"i sommer" = "this summer" (ie, the one we're in, the one that has just passed, or the one that's soon to come)
"i år" = "this year"
"i ettermiddag" = "this afternoon"
"i natt" = "last night" or "tonight", depending on context
But: "i morges" ("this morning"), since "i morgen" is already taken and means "tomorrow"