"Один мільярд гривень"
Translation:One billion hryvnias
Yes, my (phonetically trained) perception of the speaker recorded here is that word-final obstruents (stops and fricatives) are usually realized as voiceless. For instance, in the word теж, the speaker consistently realizes the final consonant not as [ʒ] (as the orthography would suggest), but rather as [ʃ]. The Wikipedia article on Ukranian phonology (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_phonology) states that Ukranian does not typically exhibit word-final devoicing (like in German or Russian), however. Whether fairly consistent application of word-final devoicing in this speaker represents a change (in progress?) in the Ukranian speech community generally, a feature of some Ukranian dialects, or perhaps influence of Russian, as three plausible hypothesis, I have no idea. If anyone has further information, I'd be curious to know.
In my experience (speaking with Ukrainian family members and friends in the diaspora), word-final devoicing doesn't take place. However, I remember reading something that might might explain this in Routledge's "Ukrainian: A Comprehensive Grammar." What you're hearing may have to do with assimilation, i.e., the preceding consonant takes on the character (voiced or voiceless) of the following consonant. This wouldn't explain your example of "теж" though, as I think it only applies to the voiced consonants "з" and "г" when they are followed by a voiceless consonant; the others remain voiced (I believe).
If you're curious to read the section I'm thinking of, it's 1.1.5 in Routledge's book.
Actually, it sounds closer to "т" in speech, I believe. It's quite hard to pronounce "д" after another consonant
On big numbers like this, do I decide whether it should be nominative Singular/plural/ genitive based on the 9 0's or the number of billions?
The first number, in this case один, determines the case of the second word, мільярд. The overall number determines the case of the noun, here гривня.
- один мільярд гривень
- два мільярди гривень
- три мільярди гривень
- п’ять мільярдів гривень
- шість мільярдів одна гривня
- сім мільярдів дві гривні
- сто один мільярд три тисячі чотириста дві гривні