"The apples are good."
Translation:La pomoj estas bonaj.
Why is it not pomojn and bonajn. Apples are the object of the sentence, so shouldn't they take an -n?
To be (esti) is a copular or linking verb. It does not take indirect objects, but links to parts of the same rank. That is the same in English, in Esperanto, and in many other languages.
No. The accusative case (ie. -n) does not apply to objects of the verb esti (estas). This is because one thing is said to be something else, so the order shouldn't change the meaning.
This is because esti does not take objects but rather subject complements. Only transitive verbs have direct objects, and only active verbs can be transitive. Esti is a stative verb.
I got this one too and thought that "bonaj" should have an "n."
Can you explain more what the difference is between a transitive verb and a stative verb?
There are two broad categories of verb: active and stative.
Active verbs have two subtypes: transitive and intransitive.
Active verbs are where something just happens. Transitive verbs are where something happens to something or someone.
Mary swims. -- intransitive
John throws the ball. -- transitive
If the verb is transitive, the sentence can be re-cast into the passive voice:
The ball was thrown (by John).
Side note: The passive voice is useful when the one doing the action is unimportant or irrelevant:
The bridge was built in 1872 (by ???).
Stative verbs connect the predicate to the subject by comparing or equating or describing. There is nothing happening.
Mary looks tired.
John is a teacher.
The pie smells delicious.
That deal sounds suspicious.
The kitten feels soft.