"He did not ask me."
Translation:Han spurgte mig ikke.
You use "at spørge" (spurgte) about asking questions.
"at bede" (bad) means to ask for something or for someone to do something, so it cannot be used without the things for which is being asked:
Han bad mig ikke (om at) gøre rent (He didn't ask me to clean)
Han bad mig ikke (om at) lave mad (He didn't ask me to cook)
Han bad mig ikke (om at) skride (He didn't ask me to piss off)
Han bad mig ikke om noget (He didn't ask me for anything / He didn't ask me to do anything)
Han bad mig ikke om 1.000 kr. (He didn't ask me for 1,000 kr.)
Han bad mig ikke om en gaffel (He didn't ask me for a fork)
(This is paraphrased from another answer I have seen though I do not remember who wrote it).
Usually in a simple sentence, 'ikke' goes at the end.
You can place it after a verb to add emphasis on 'det' or 'that' or when something is going somewhere. E.g. Vi gik ikke derhen (we did not go over there). Vi løbte ikke hjem (we did not run home).
If a sentence has an indirect object, 'ikke' can be placed elsewhere. E.g. Hun gave ikke gaven til ham (she did not give the present to him). Hun gav ham ikke gaven (she didn't give him the present).
It goes after the subject of the sentence when: 1) the sentence is a subclause, usually after 'at'. E.g. Vi vidste ikke, at hun ikke vidste set (we did not know that she did not know it); 2) a time to place is mentioned at the start of the sentence or if there is no object. E.g. I går vidste hun ikke (yesterday she did not know). If there is an object it goes after.
I hope this helps!!