Turning (as always) to Fowler's Modern English Usage, he states that "I" is correct, but that the colloquial use of "me" is so prevelant that using I without including am ("you are better than I am") could appear pedantic. Personally, I would consider "I" to be correct, but more often than not would use "me" in everyday speech.
Ok. In many scholarly pursuits, professions, and lines of work having a somewhat pedantic knowledge of the given subject or subject matter is considered by those involved in these activites(peers) to be a positive personal trait. While being overly pedantic can be tiresome, a moderate amount of it us usually accepted my most people. If you have ever studied for example: etymology, computer programming, electrical engineering or map making it would behoove you to be at the very least moderately pedantic. Personally, I am all right with "I", "I am" or "me" as they all convey the same concept in the sentence as used in this learning program.
Agree. While I scholastically. studied graphic design in my early years (which is far removed from being pedantic) in telecommunications in its own early early years I programed for it, BBSes and terminal software. Debugging is a very pedantic process. Was a Beta Tester of the first Internet Explorer browser. I found the MS programers hadn't been any where near pedantic enough. It was chuck full of bugs. I have a high regard for pedanticism.
It's much easier with a real human speaker than some of Duolingo's Spanish pronunciation. But the best way is to learn to pronounce the sounds properly yourself. Unfortunately, this means you'll have to learn the sounds elsewhere for some words. One you can say them properly, it becomes much easier to hear them properly. Except of course when Duolingo gets it so incredibly wrong that a native speaker would be confused (bilingüe for instance).
This is my favourite grammatical gripe. Better than ME is actually correct as me is the object of the sentence as in: Next to me, gave to me, taller than me. However, the use of "I" is a hypercorrection. It originates from children being repeatedly corrected when saying "Me and such and such are going to do such and such", and eventually coming to think that "I" is always correct when another person is involved in the sentence. Language is evolving though, and now many grammar experts will say that "I" is correct in this sentence because the language has evolved that way. So try not to lose as much sleep over it as I do. (Or as much a sleep as me.)
You are arguably correct in that the sentence "You are better than me" should be considered grammatical, but your explanation that it is simply the natural form and "than I" is a hypercorrection is not true. "Than I" has historically been the accepted construction, as evidenced by this ngram:
As you can see, "than me" is a relatively new occurrence, and it likely results from the discomfort of speakers with using a nominative pronoun in a position removed from any verb. In the standard grammatical reading of the sentence, than functions as a conjunction and the sentence is elliptical, with I leading its own clause ("You are better than I [am]."). That is why "than I" is used more in formal language.
There are two possible explanations for "than me". Both are contentious and neither is fully accepted. The first is that than could be considered a preposition rather than a conjunction in this usage. This would put it on par with words like to and from, which obviously take oblique, not nominative, pronouns ("to me", "from me"). The second is that this is an example of a disjunctive pronoun, the existence of which is universally accepted in other languages (such as French), but not usually in English. Disjunctive pronouns are pronouns used when not accompanied directly by a conjugated verb.
Language belongs to the people, so I'm willing to say "than me" in comfort, but it is worth noting that in a standard understanding of English grammar, "than I" is the unarguably correct formulation.
It seems silly to me that the question would be "You are better than whom?" universally agreed upon by grammarians, but then the declarative is formed by replacing whom with a subject pronoun.
I'd argue that the grammar rules have in some ways fallen behind on the usage of "than" as a preposition in one aspect of speech but advanced in the other.
This ngram shows the confusion caused by grammarians insisting on the use of subject pronouns without verbs. https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=than+who%2Cthan+whom
That is an interesting angle that I hadn't thought of before. I wonder if this is another case of hypercorrection that is so ingrained that we can't even recognize the originally correct form. By the same analogy I could say that your question is an elliptical form of "You are better than who [is]?" or it could be ordered "Who(m) are you better than?" I don't have a good answer though.
The pronunciation of the letters 'y' and 'll' vary slightly depending on where you are. The majority of Spanish speakers (the majority of Spanish speakers are in the Americas) pronounce it like the English 'y'. Some Spanish speakers, particularly some on Spain, Argentina and a few other places pronounce it more traditionally as what you are trying to describe. However, it is not the English 'j' sound at all. It is like a hard English 'sh'. Do you know how to pronounce (or at least how Americans pronounce) ZsaZsa Gabore's name? It's more that sound than a 'j'. The sound does not exist in English.
That says You are me better. In the same way that the restriction applies to the verb be in English, ser usually can't take a direct object. Regardless, this sentence expresses a comparison between two syntactically equivalent subjects (you and I), so it completely changes the meaning to subjugate one as the object of the other.
re Using 'me' or 'I': I think that the more proper version should be used. This is because a lot of people who are not fluent in English look to Duolingo for guidance. And if we insist upon using 'me', then the option to put 'I' should be given. It hurts to write 'me'. 'course it hurts to be me, and other people, too. :)