Latin for Duolingo: 2nd Declension, Lesson 2
Salvete discipuli discipulaeque! Today’s lesson continues with the 2nd declension of nouns. Please check out the following links for previous lessons and vocabulary:
- Directory of Lessons
- Classified Vocabulary List
- Memrise course for vocabulary
- Memrise course with sentences
- Previous lesson: 2nd Declension, Lesson 1
Last time we covered the nominative and accusative of nouns of the 2nd declension. These come in two varieties, masculine and neuter. It takes a while to master the different endings, so today’s sentences will continue to offer practice in nominative and accusative. But we’ll also add the ablative case. There is no difference between masculine and neuter in this case: the ablative singular ends in –o and the ablative plural ends in –is. As you may remember from the 1st declension, the ablative is used to express the object of some prepositions, but it has many other uses. It’s kind of a “junk drawer” grammar form, actually. We’ll add another two prepositions that take the ablative case for their objects.
Also, since we have learned some masculine 1st declension nouns, we use the masculine adjectives to modify them, even though the endings do not match. This is where I really look forward to using the drop-down menu to pick the right word ending, because it requires some serious thought!
case name | sing. | pl. | typical use
nominative (m.) | -us/-r | -i | subject or predicate noun
nominative (n.) | -um | -a | “
genitive | -i | -orum | possession, the “of” case
dative | -o | -is | indirect object, the “to/for” case
accusative (m.) | -um | -os | direct object (also some objects of preps.)
accusative (n.) | -um | -a | “
ablative | -o | -is | objects of prepositions, etc. “by/with/from” case
discipulus, i = student (male) (discipula, ae = female student) n.b. Latin tends to use masculine plural endings in a general way when referring to a mixed group: Salvete discipuli does not necessarily exclude the female students, but I used the more inclusive and longer form above)
hortus, i = garden
magister, magistri = teacher, master (male)
bracchium, i = arm
altus, a, um = high, tall, deep
longus, a, um = long
de (prep. w. abl.) = concerning, about, from, down from
sine (prep. w. abl.) = without
-que = and (This conjunction form is an enclitic, tacked on to the end of the second word to be joined, e.g. “pueri puellaeque” = boys and girls.)
Magister librum cum pueris legit. = The teacher reads a book with the boys.
Puer cum magistro ambulat. = The boy walks with the teacher.
Nauta est pulcher. = The sailor is handsome.
Feminae nautas pulchros vident. = The women see the handsome sailors.
Nautae feminas pulchras vident. = The sailors see the beautiful women.
Sine aquā in periculo sumus. = We are in danger without water.
Hortus meus pulcher est. = My garden is beautiful.
Sunt rosae in horto. = There are roses in the garden.
Librum de hortis scribo. = I am writing a book about gardens.
Bracchium tuum est longum. = Your arm is long.
Agricola est altus et pulcher. = The farmer is tall and handsome.
Cum Marco et Paulā ambulamus. = We walk with Marcus and Paula.
Cum Marco Paulāque ambulatis. = You walk with Marcus and Paula.
Cum viris et feminis ambulo. = I walk with the men and the women.
Sine cibo et aquā non laboratis. = You do not work without food and water.
Sine cibo aquāque non laborant. = They do not work without food and water.
Agricolam altum in agro video. = I see the tall farmer in the field.
Magister magistraque de oppido ambulant. = The male and female teacher (or master and mistress) walk (down) from the town.
Parvi pueri libros de equis legunt. = The small boys read books about horses.
If you have questions feel free to ask them below and I will attempt to respond. I hope the pace is about right and the difficulty level is neither overwhelming nor too easy. Until next time, when we will work on the genitive case, valete!
Well, there are two main ways of learning a language: being immersed by a lot of practise and trial and error (the Duolingo way) and learning grammar schemes and verb conjugations and lists.
I find that I prefer the trial and error way because it makes the language feel much more 'native' to me, so therefore I'd love to see a course on Latin sometime here, because I'm interested in that language. Anyways I've got a little book over here with schemes and explanations too so I might just take a peek in that sometime. Anyways, let's get Spanish straight first!