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  5. "Esperanto havas nur du kazoj…

"Esperanto havas nur du kazojn."

Translation:Esperanto has only two cases.

June 20, 2015

46 Comments

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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Erven.R

And I am thankful for that.

June 20, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FredCapp

And one of them used to be full of beer, before that bear came by.

August 14, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AlexeiNewt

Dude, what's your obsession with bears and beer?

June 18, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FredCapp

Ask the owl.

June 18, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ged92781

"Mr Owl, how many licks does it take to get to the tootsie-roll center of a tootsie-pop?"

May 24, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FredCapp

Donas «ged9281» poentojn.

May 24, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/rekkofolis

Technically, esperanto does have a dative and genitive case, but they don't have affixes. They use "al" and "de la". But that's just my linguistic nerdiness coming out.

October 11, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

Actually, no. If they don't have affixes, you don't call them cases in linguistics.

October 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lazar.ljubenovic

So why is nominative a case then, by that definition? Is -o treated as "nominative case noun affix"?

January 18, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

Good point, I forgot to mention that. The nominative is unmarked in Esperanto, but it stands in opposition to the only marked case, the accusative (in -n), and so it is treated as a case, too. While most languages don't mark the nominative, as it is a kind of default case, some actually do.

January 18, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CaribbeanMax

Nominative is a case because it hasn't got any "general" affix. So that's the way you'll find the word in the dictionary.

December 29, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/rekkofolis

Oh, I seem to have been mistaken. I thought they didn't need to have affixes, but I think there still is a genitive case as seen with the possessive pronoun's (mia, lia, via, etc) and the genitive correlatives (kies, ties, etc).

October 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

Kies etc. could indeed be called genitives, probably, although I'd probably just treat them as "possessive interrogative/relative/... pronouns". But mia etc. are adjectives, not genitive nouns. Also in German and English "my" and "mein" are treated as adjectives, not as genitive. You can see that they can receive the accusative ending.

October 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/claire_resurgent

Not so much anymore. They're both studied under the same subject of case grammar, and especially in English-language discussion of Japanese grammar "case particle" and "postposition" are used interchangably.

September 23, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

That is how it is described in the Fundamento, but that seems a German way of looking at it.

Why not also say that it has an instrumental case (kun), an ablative case (also with de), an inessive-illative case (en), a terminative case (ĝis), ....

December 1, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AlexeiNewt

This is slightly off topic...but would the Welsh mutations count as cases or not? After all, a case can have multiple uses, and not all nouns have to have separate forms for all cases...

July 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

I would say no - I think it's more in the same category of sound assimilation as the variation between "a" and "an" in English depending on the following sound.

July 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/benulo

They are not inflected cases, right?

October 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

You're right. Esperanto has two cases, not more. What counts is the inflection. Otherwise Esperanto would have dozens of cases, one for every proposition.

October 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/seancenarox

I'm confused. What are the cases?

February 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

They're nominative and accusative (nominativo kaj akuzativo).

Nominative is the basic form, accusative has an -n at the end.

La granda kato vidas la belan hundon. -- la granda kato is in the nominative case, la belan hundon is in the accusative case in this sentence.

February 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/-Zorua-

The first thing that popped into my mind when I saw this sentence was "Esperanto detective agency".

July 8, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FredCapp

Kial la anglalingvanoj neniam prenas iliajn kazojn al ni?

Estas, vere malkomprenebla. Eble la ĉinalingvanoj, ĉu?

July 8, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/rapn21

I thought the accusative was the only one. What's the second?

September 3, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

The nominative.

September 3, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/xigoi

Actually, I would like genitive and dative to have a suffix instead of having "de" and "al" everywhere.

July 22, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AlexeiNewt

Go learn Hungarian if you like cases.

July 22, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lea8D

Tre malĝentila.

July 22, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/xigoi

My native (Czech) has seven of them so I have enough, I just don't like seeing "de" and "al" everywhere. Also the "de" needlessly enforces word order.

July 23, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/claire_resurgent

I agree. It's obviously too fundamental to change (much too fundamental), but it really wouldn't make the language too much more difficult. Imagine:

-es/-esi for the genitive and -od/-ojd for the dative.

And a correlative case (kiele...) for method-how distinct from manner/degree-how (kiel).

  • Pardonu min, ĉu bonvolu diri mod, kiele atingi la stacion?

  • La grupo, kiod li apartenas, kunsidos morgaŭ.

  • Ŝi tiris la levilon kaj tiele ŝtopis la alfluantan akvon.

September 23, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/xigoi

I think the ending -o shouldn't be changed. What about -oŝ or -of?

September 23, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Cambarellus

I know I'm replying to an old comment but; Esperanto was designed to be simple. Extra cases make it harder for some people to learn. "De" and "Al" are a lot easier to learn for people from native languages that are not already abundant with different cases.

Your native language is one with many cases, which is probably why you would prefer Esperanto to have more. (It seems more natural to you.) For me, I am glad there are only two.

May 29, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RandomCanadian12

germana kazoj ankoraux donas al mi koŝmarojn

June 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Do prefere ne lernu la hungaran nek la finnan :)

June 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RandomCanadian12

vi konvinkis min

June 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AdamScott794079

Cases?

May 25, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Yes, grammatical cases. The two cases of Esperanto are nominative and accusative.

English pronouns also have two cases (e.g. "he" versus "him"); I've heard those cases called "subjective" and "objective" or "nominative" and "accusative".

May 25, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AdamScott794079

Thanks! (FSM, save our holy language, esperanto

May 25, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dudeski123

And I miss the dative and genitive. And would like to add that the adverb functions much like an instrumental and locative case.

August 10, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Wer_

This sentence is a lie

May 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Why? What do you think is wrong about it? How many cases do you think Esperanto has?

May 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Wer_

Ok, here is my point: -Mi legas libroN (accusative) -Mi helpas viN (dative) -Mi metas panon en la skatoloN (genitive, locative or adverbial i guess?) Also on wikipedia they say pronouns have some genitive attributes

May 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vangelion

"Mi putas panon..." Did you mean to write "metas"? "putas" would mean something like "make a well".

May 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Wer_

yeah thanks, it auto-corrected me

May 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Vortarulo

That's one case, though. The accusative. Cases aren't counted by what functions they perform, but by their forms. So Esperanto has 2 cases: the one without ending, and the one with the -n at the end. By convention these are called nominative and accusative.

Mi helpas vin is not a dative case, it's accusative. You could argue that Mi donas la libron AL VI uses the dative case, but that's not a case. It's a prepositional phrase.

May 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Wer_

If you are looking at it this way and apply this logic, then I agree with you, also yes prepositions only form the cases but are not counted as ones. But you can also say English has one case even though it does not have any and there are many languages in which various cases have the same ending yet are a different one. On Wikipedia i have found ''[Esperanto has] two cases nominative/oblique and accusative/allative, [...] the adjectival form of personal pronouns behaves like a genitive case."

May 7, 2018
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