"I order one liter of soup and two kilograms of tomatoes."
Translation:Mi mendas unu litron da supo kaj du kilogramojn da tomatoj.
I'm a bit disappointed. I'm having a lot of difficulties with "de" and "da". When do you use "de" and when do you use "da"?
In Esperanto, "de", "da", and "el" correspond to the English prepositions "from", and "of".
The most general one is "de". The others are used in specific contexts.
- "Da" is used to express quantity or measurement.
- "El" is used to express movement "out of" or "from within".
The difference between "de" and "da" can be illustrated as below (src):
"De" is used in many ways, for expressing many things, like moving away, origin, cause, time or a property (respectively).
- Mi venas de la urbo. - I come from the city.
- Mi ricevis kison de vi. - I received a kiss from you.
- Mi ridas de ĝojo. - I laugh from joy.
- De nun mi amas vin. - From now on, I love you.
- Glaso de biero. - Glass of beer (a glass, which contains beer)
"Da" is used between a quantity word and the measurement you're expressing.
- Kilogramo da rizo - kilogram of rice
- Du litroj da lakto - two liters of milk
- Glaso da biero - glass of beer (a glass-sized quantity of beer)
- Multe da bananoj
If you want more, "da" cannot be used before something determined as follows. (See Rim 3 and 4 in PIV.) "Da" cannot be followed by
- "la" (kvaronjaro estas parto de la jaro)
- "ĉiuj" and "tuta" (nur kelkaj el ĉiuj voĉdonantoj)
- demonstrative, possesive, and numerical determiners (iom de tiu kuko; la nombro de niaj partianoj; rento de mil dolaroj)
- a precise quantity (duono de monato but kelke da monatoj)
Why is is "litron" instead of "litro" and "kilogramojn" instead of "kilogramoj?"
Because they are the direct object of the verb, they are what you order/mendas.
Because it came after a preposition. And, normally, we never use an accusative after a preposition. (We use it only to indicate motion, if the preposition doesn't).
I thought "kilo" can be used as a synonym of "kilogramo", but "... kaj du kilojn da ..." is not accepted. I have to understand why...
I would report it so Duolingo can make that an accepted answer. The only thing I can think of is that it might not be “proper” Esperanto, but in “proper” Esperanto the language is called “la Internacia lingvo” so who knows
I'm having difficulty here...why is it "litron da supo" and not "litron da supon"?
You shouldn't use accusative after "da". Words connected by "da" are in some relation but a word after "da" never takes accusative.
Generally, you don't use accusative after prepostions, except when you want to indicate motion toward/in some direction.
A bit late, but is 'da' and 'de' kind of like estas? In the sense that you don't put an accusative after da because it implies the direct object?
So... is it that litro and kilogramo both take the -n because they are describing a noun each; but the actual nouns, supo and tomato, do NOT take the -n, because "a word after 'da' never takes the accusative" ?