Say you are speaking to one person with whom you want to use the formal "ви" (singular "you" as opposed to collective "you"). Then would you say "ви вчила / ви вчив" ? Or does ви only ever use the ending -ли no matter the gender of the individual?
It takes the plural endings for every tense and aspect of the verb, even when referring (politely) to a single individual.
In Ukrainian you can use both "в" and "у" to say "in", you choose easier to pronunce one :)
Is there that much of a difference from "What have you learned in school?"
No. It can be translated as the present perfect or the simple past depending on the context. I have added the alternative variant.
I thought вчити meant 'teach' and вчитися meant 'learn' or 'study'. Can вчити be used both for teach and learn? In English teach and learn have very distinct meanings.
Вчити (and its phonetic variant учити) can mean both, the exact meaning can be understood depending on the nouns you use with it:
- When it means ’to teach’, you use the person being taught in accusative case, and the subject being taught in dative case.
- When it means ‘to learn’, you use the subject being learnt in accusative case.
«Вчитися» also works in this sentence, but it requires a dative case for the subject being learnt: «Чому ви вчилися в школі?».
If that is accurate, and it seems that you are right, that is a very good and useful reply! I will keep your reply for future reference. Thanks very much.