Not a native, but I understand the other dialects 90% (except for Ulster XD). It's kinda confusing. My granny is from the south east and when I was young she spoke to me in Irish, but it wasn't a major dialect. It's got more English influence, no palatisation (except in some cases e.g. ceannaigh = "kyan-ig" and the pronunciation is very different. We also use very fixed word order with no emphasis, gender isn't too important either, you can use feminine adjectives but they aren't necessary but the "urú" (I don't know what it is in English, it's the mb, bp case) is very important. Here is how we'd pronounce things:
Is scríobhneoir é Pol (is shkreev-nohr ay pohl)
Dia duit (dee-ah dit, or dee-ah di' with a glottal stop)
Chuaigh sé go dtí an siopa an t-arán a cheannach (hoo-ig shay go jee on shuh-pah on taw-rawn a kyan-ok)
I think there's a Gaeltacht in Meath, they might speak like us. But I've only ever heard a few people in my family speak it.
No. There is a confusion of terms here. While the 3 major dialects are given geographical labels, they aren't rigidly geographically distributed, and there are subdialects within the major dialects. The Irish of North Mayo is influenced by Ulster Irish despite following the norms of Connacht Irish in most ways. The Irish of Clare had aspects of both Munster and Connacht Irish (which is why some people claim that An caighdeán is based on Clare Irish). The Irish spoken in Leinster before 20th Century was closest to Ulster Irish in the part of Leinster north of Dublin, Connacht Irish in the west of Leinster, and Munster Irish in the south. But it was already seriously depleted by the time anyone began to make any rigourous academic attempt to document it. As such there is no "Leinster Irish" - even when Irish was widely spoken as a native language in Leinster, it wouldn't have been defined as a dialect that was geographically distinct from the other dialects.
The Irish spoken in Gaelscoileanna today is based on An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, with influence from whichever dialect the teachers are most familiar with, or a Gaeltacht or Coláiste Samhraidh that the Gaelscoil has strong links to. Outside of the Gaeltachts, you won't get "pure" dialect Irish (and even within the Gaeltachts, the schools use textbooks that are typically written in An Caighdeán), and while a Gaelscoil in Cork will lean towards Munster Irish norms, they'll be the features of 21st Century Munster Irish, not the features of 19th Century Munster Irish, and won't be significantly different than the Irish being spoken or written in a non-Gaeltacht Gaelscoil in Waterford or Dublin or Galway.
Grandparents who learned Irish in school in Leinster in the 1930s, 40s and 50s, long after vernacular Irish was gone from the locality, learned an early version of "standard Irish".
If it's truly a vestige of this supposedly extinct dialect, please document it officially before it's lost entirely! You may speak a microdialect, which is like buried treasure in the linguistic world! I only know you should contact Universities that have an interest in dialects. Find Lillis O'Leary, Donegal native speaker who is well connected with t hi e academics who are trying to save or record microdialects. He can at least steer you in the right direction. Please do this! It doesn't have to be perfect or anything. Please know that your knowledge and experiences might be extremely important and in danger of being lost forever.
The é is needed because a classificational copular question with a definite subject requires a pronominal subsubject. (In Irish, a proper name is a definite noun.) Bhfuil isn’t needed because bhfuil is a conjugation of the verb bí, and bí is not used in this sentence.
EDIT: In Ulster Irish, the é could be omitted.
I think it is more an affirmative type sentence. Like to say "Indeed Paul is a writer." Instead of just the regular sounding "Paul is a writer." I could be wrong. Is ea as I've seen it is used as an affirmative response to some question types. So I would assume that it has that feel. Someone, please correct me if I am wrong :)
There is a gealteacht in Wisconsin on an island in the middle of a large lake in the United States. They were obviously immigrants who chose to live in an isolated situation and keep their language and customs. I want to learn enough Irish to go there and see what's up!
They both have 6 letters, and end in "r" but "author" starts with "a" and "writer" starts with "w".
More seriously, though, most (all?) authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. More particularly, if I wrote a book 20 years ago but haven't written anything since, I would still be "an author" today, but I wouldn't be "a writer" anymore. Many journalists or newspaper columnists can be described as "writers", but they wouldn't usually be described as authors unless they had also written a book, (though sometimes a person will refer to "the author of that column", it wouldn't be the normal usage).
If I write a letter to the editor, I am "the writer of that letter", but I'm not an author.
It is common practice in Irish use the Irish equivalents of names where they are available, not least because they follow Irish spelling rules, and work with the vocative case and other processes, like forming the genitive. It isn't strictly necessary to do the same thing when going from Irish to English (and many people choose to use the Irish version of their name in English), but for the purpose of the course, and recognizing that names are handled differently in Irish and English, it is best to use Pól in Irish, and "Paul" in English.
If your name is "Paul", and you go to the Gaeltacht, expect to be addressed as A Phóil, not "A Paul".
Here's what the EID's "Plan of the Dictionary" has to say on the matter of names: