Latin for Duolingo: 2nd Declension, Lesson 3
Another week, another Latin lesson! If you are just joining this series, you may want to check out the following links for previous lessons and vocabulary:
- Directory of Lessons
- Classified Vocabulary List
- Memrise course for vocabulary
- Memrise course with sentences
- Previous lesson: 2nd Declension, Lesson 2
The genitive case is used to show possession, or more broadly, in expressions that use “of” in English. The genitive singular is the marker that tells us what declension a noun belongs in: for the 2nd declension, the genitive singular ending is –i and the genitive plural is –orum. This is true whether the noun is masculine or neuter in gender. Because the gen. s. ending “-i” helps us to classify the nouns in the 2nd declension it is standard to list all nouns with nom. and gen. s. Thus the listing “medicus, i = doctor” tells us that it is a second declension noun because of the –i ending in the gen.s., it is masculine because of the –us ending in the nom., and when we look specifically at the form “medici” we could translate it either as “the doctor’s” or “of the doctor.” Since it is a masculine noun, "medici" could also be the nominative plural form "the doctors"; the difference has to be determined by context. This gets easier with practice.
case name | sing. | pl. | typical use
nominative (m.) | -us/-r | -i | subject or predicate noun
nominative (n.) | -um | -a | “
genitive | -i | -orum | possession, the “of” case
dative | -o | -is | indirect object, the “to/for” case
accusative (m.) | -um | -os | direct object (also some objects of preps.)
accusative (n.) | -um | -a | “
ablative | -o | -is | objects of prepositions, etc. “by/with/from” case
avus, i = grandfather
dominus, i = lord, master, owner
filius, i = son
numerus, i = number
populus, i = nation, a people (usually singular)
Romanus, i = a Roman (m.)
servus, i = slave, servant
consilium, i = plan, counsel, advice
forum, i = forum, marketplace, public square, court
fragum, i = strawberry
verbum, i = word
Romanus, a, um = Roman
verus, a, um = true, real
Horologium avi mei est altum. = My grandfather’s clock is tall.
Dominus servi in foro est. = The slave’s master is in the forum.
Vir fragum pueri edit. = The man eats the boy’s strawberry.
Multi viri in foro oppidi sunt. = Many men are in the town’s forum.
Consilium medici tui bonum est. = Your doctor’s advice is good.
Terram Romanorum videtis. = You see the land of the Romans.
Puellae fraga puerorum edunt. = The girls are eating the boys’ strawberries.
Agricola Romanus multos equos habet. = The Roman farmer has many horses.
Agricola altus magnum numerum equorum habet. = The tall farmer has a large number of horses.
Equi Marci in agris ambulant. = Marcus’ horses are walking in the fields.
Cum amico filii tui laboro. = I work with your son’s friend.
Verba Gaii non sunt vera. = The words of Gaius (Gaius’ words) are not true.
Filius amici nostri nova consilia habet. = Our friend’s son has new plans.
Forum populi in oppido est. = The people’s marketplace is in the town.
Vinum bonum avi mei bibimus. = We drink my grandfather’s good wine.
Avus pueri est Romanus, sed in Galliā est. = The boy’s grandfather is Roman, but he is in Gaul.
Vox populi, vox Dei. = The voice of the people is the voice of God. (sneaking a few extra words in, but this is a “real” Latin saying in common use even today!)
Ultimus Romanorum es. = You are the last of the Romans. (a compliment – you are the last remnant of a noble but vanishing breed!)
In the next lesson we will look at the use of the dative case in the 2nd declension. Questions or comments about any of the concepts in this lesson? Write them below and I’ll do my best to answer them. Thank you for following along. Valete!