"How many? - One."
Translation:Скільки? - Один.
Would it be correct to answer одна or одне if the context would refer to a feminine or neuter noun?
That's a literal translation, but we don't really say when asking about quantity. It's more commonly used in the meaning "as many":
- Як багато хто з вас уже знає, .. (As many of you already know)