="Et toi, Brutus?" (and you, Brutus?) Here a better thanslation would be "toi aussi Brutus?" (you also Brutus?) This example is very good, because you could see how Latin and French are sometimes very closed.
When Ceaser faced the senators with knives he saw brutus(brute) whom he trusted most and thus said this in disbelief.
in chinese,it is '还有你吗，布鲁图？' Even though, it is translated into another lanuage, i am impressed by his depression and agony.
My question is: do we have to follow the "vous" with the verb in plural even if the sentence refers to a singular subject? Example: Is "You love me (singular)" correctly translated as "Vous aimez moi (formal)" / "Tu aimes moi (informal)"?
Correct me if I have made any mistakes - both in english or in french - please.
Yes. I know in Spanish there is a separate formal singular and separate formal plural, but not in French, nor in English.
There is not a separate conjuation for vous for singular. Vous can be singular or plural with its own conjugation. In English we say "You are one person." and "You are many people." In French "Vous êtes une personne." and "Vous êtes des millions de personnes." Vous is also the plural of tu. So it covers the Spanish Vosotros/vosotras, Usted and Ustedes.
Here is a list of the French pronouns: http://french.about.com/od/grammar/a/pronouns.htm
The direct object pronoun would be "me" and it is placed directly in front of the verb. In this case the verb starts with a vowel so "me" becomes "m' "
"Vous m'aimez (formal singular)" / "Tu m'aimes. (informal singular)
vous - plural for 'you', as well as formal (singular or plural) for 'you' tu - informal singular for 'you'
I find this intresting, in my mother tongue(Arabic). if you speak to someone in the plural form that implies your respect and admiration or even submission. maybe that's why "vous" is used for formal speaking showing more respect. The puzzle is all connected :)
it's not frozen rules. In some firm, you say "tu" to your boss, in some firm, you're forced to say "vous", in some firm, you boss say "tu" to you, in some firm he prefers to keep distance or to show respect with "vous", etc... In most of the school (with some exceptions for young children's classes), you have to say "vous" to your teacher, but the teacher may say "tu" or "vous" to the pupils according to the kind of school, the age of the pupil, etc. There's no frozen rules. When you meet someone, you can say "vous" to the unknow, but it depends on the age (I wouldn't say "tu" to an old lady who is not from my family, except if she ask me, and even if she asks, I would probably feel uncomfortable with it). If 2 young people met, they won't say "vous" even if they doesn't know each other.
'If 2 young people met, they won't say "vous" even if they doesn't know each other.'
The difficult thing is to know if someone is a "young person". Teenagers for sure, twenty-somethings probably, thirty-sometings more difficult to know, fourty-someting impossible to know, fifty-something probably not - my personal guessings.
So, which ages are considered young? Or is it same age as oneself and younger that counts as young?
It depends on the etiquette, the education, the place, the circumstances, etc.. It's a general trend. 2 people in their early 20's it will be (almost) always the case for "tu", after, it depends on the circumstances, where they met, who witness it, etc...
On the internet the general rule (netiquette) is "tu", but a lot of people doesn't feel cumfortable to say "tu" to strangers, or thinks it's impolite. It depends also the kind of site, etc...
Thank you. That is very helpful. Just one more thing - if you're speaking to a group of people, what do you say? I assume "vous", innit?
Family members who are younger than you and very close friends.
It is respectful to use vous with those who are older than you. So in public where I might introduce my parents as my mother and father, I would use "vous". At home where I might be inclined to say mom and dad, I could use the familiar "tu". You must have permission to use "tu". You may have a grandparent who prefers the formal version and you would honor that. It is always best to let your elder tell you, "Oh, you can call me ......( less formal version of Grandmother or Grandfather.)" Then, you will know. Chances are, that if someone you know wants you to call them by their first name, they might not be offended by "tu", but I always wait for them to complain that I don't need to be formal with them. A little respect can go a long way.
No Allintolearning, I disagree with your definitions here. It's not such frozen rules. In most French family you say "tu" to all your family, even if there are older than you, but maybe in some very upper class family you say "vous", it's very scarce nowadays. The exception can be with your family by marriage, but no rules, you can say either "vous" or "to" to your sister or brother-in-law, mother/ father-in-law, everyone choose between "you" and "tu" according to the situation/one's feels/their social class/what seems to be accepted by other family members or how one's find it comfortable. I never saw someone who was saying "vous" to his/her close parents even it they're old, I'm a French. Maybe in other French speaking countries, it's a little different?
Just to clarify, Et vous is formal. And Et toi is the informal version, right? But what is Et tu?
"tu" is the informal or familiar singular you to be used as a subject. "toi" is the emphasized version of informal singular you, which replaces "te" the object version of informal singular you in many situations.
Vous is also familiar plural as well as formal singular and formal plural. It covers vós/vos and vocês
"tu" is not so informal (I think it's not a very good choice of words), it can be used when you know someone, unless you are in a situation where's there social conventions forcing you to say "vous", or ages situations.
Informal means NOT formal, but I think you are right that familiar is a better word for this. Social conventions are exactly what make a situation formal.
"tu"(pronoun: toi) and vous (pronoun: vous) doesn't mean exactly the same thing, but yes, they share the same translation. Normally, it's accepted by the site.
For me it's confusing as to when to use "Tu" and "Vous". Hahaha. Anyway, I think this is due to formality and informality way of speaking. Whatever the reason is, I am learning. :)
I tried to explain a little above. There no frozen rules for it, only social conventions to learn, but they are not really frozen.
vou-os? There's no liaison, it must only sound like "vou" here.
Pretty tough language. What they says is totally different from what they have wrote
Yes, the spoken and written forms of French are different. But they do say exactly what is written - but according to French spelling and pronunciation rules, of course.
English is equally confusing to learn for non English speakers. And I assure you, the spelling and pronunciation do not always match in English either, seen from another language perspective!
Yes and no. They both mean "And you", but they are used in different situations.
"Et toi" is used to address one person only, and in an informal, familiar way accepted by children, young persons, family and close friends.
"Et vous" is used to either address one person in a formal way, suitable for strangers and non-close persons as socially higher ranked persons, or to address more than one person either informally or formally (no different between informal plural or formal plural).
I translated it as "what about you guys?" and it marked it as wrong. This should be corrected.
Perhaps What about you? might be a plausible translation, but not the attachement of guys. The French phrase is much more simple.
Well in Romance languages i guess that's how it is. For example: Salut is informal and Bonjour is formal. In Romance languages things are separated into genders. thats how thing are.
Isn't "vous" used also as a plural for "they". So "And them" would also be correct?
No Vous is a more formal version of Tu. You use it when speaking to somebody you don't know. Example: Comment allez- vous? is how are you? Ca Va is using the tu form of Aller and is informal.
And, in France, at least a few years back (smile), it was a small insult to address someone in the familiar/vous form before becoming closely acquainted. Don't know if this still holds.
The familiar "tu" form? Now it's natural. It's a matter of generation I guess. There's situations where you are forced to say "vous". But there's a lot of situations where you can use "tu" even if you don't know the person, and without being insulting or scornful by example, on the internet, the usage is to say to everyone "tu". ("nétiquette") In general, moderators prefer to say "vous" (though it depends on which sites)
vous is also a plural for you so if you were talking to a group of people ie. are you (lot) ok?
"Vous", though it is grammatically a plural, can represent a plural (several person) or only a person.
I've heard that the proper term is 'et toi', and 'et tu' is just a mixture of French and Spanish. No idea if that's right though.
It depends what was previously said. "Tu" is the subject form of the familiar you pronoun. "Toi" is the stressed version of this pronoun. So, it is used in this case. The object form "te" is changed to "toi" for emphasis.
See the following table of French pronouns: http://french.about.com/od/grammar/a/pronouns.htm
You're explanations are good, but did you say that it "may well be used in this case". No, never, it doesn't depend, it simply is not possible to use "tu" in this case.
Lol, "tu" is not a mixture of French and Spanish (I don't get what you mean by this expression), Tú in Spanish (with accent, subject) = Tu in French. Tu (without accent, not subject)= Toi in French.
"Tu" exist only when used as the subject pronoun and has to be used only when it's a subject. Its forms as a non-subject, a complement ar: toi, te or t'. Ex: Tu es aimé: you are loved (tu: subject); Je t'aime (t'= contraction for "te", not a subject but the complement of "aime", an object pronoun); Je viens avec toi (I come with you): not a subject, indirect complement, used with a preposition, "avec". Here you have to say "ET TOI" (it's not subject, you can't use the "tu" form)
Duolingo is an effort to translate the whole internet to other languages. While technically correct, allowing "ye" as a translation for "vous" would set the precedent that all sorts of funky archaic speech patterns are allowed.
Because ye isn't what they're trying to teach us they want us to use vous instead because that's not proper grammar
When "ye" is used in English? And by who? I'm not a native, I'd like to know when you can hear this argotic expression. Thanks.
In old English Christmas carols, "God bless ye merry gentlemen, let no one ye dismay......"
It is the plural form of "thee" and "thou", which we also don't use anymore except in old songs, poems and prayers. "Thou art...." and "I love thee..."
"Et vous? " = "E você?"
I am from California. Mes parents viennent de Montreal.
guys is slang and refers to males.
No. Just because of the word "guy" doesn't mean she was referring to a man, rather it is also used for groups or clusters of people wether males or females or both. :)
Some people use it that way but the original term was "guys and gals" meaning boys and girls. It is still slang. I personally would be offended if someone called a group of us girls "guys".
Agree with allintolearning. There's the proper meanings and the meanings to which it's extended to in oral speeches.
Which eventually will become one of many proper meanings or in some cases the proper meaning.
But until then, it sure is best to keep to grammar accepted by most people of all ages and subcultures.
Vous and tu have the same meaning " you " so what's the differnce between them ?
Oh yeah what's the difference of Tu and Vous? I get confused wih them a lot.
Wait, wait, so "vous" is basically "vosotros" form like "y'all" or "you all" but it's also used as the Usted form equivalent (formal "you") in french? >,< French needs an appropriate set of tips¬es!
in arabe we say "و أنت" for singular and "و أنتم" for plural Tnx for your help
et vous mean: "and You?"
etes-vous means: "Are you". Would match perfectly with"Ou etes-vous" which mean where are you.
"et" means and people why does it have to be so hard well "vous" is (yourself) duh