Then there's verbs in the present tense. there's a base of the verb and the form "to do". We change the ending depending on who is doing the action.
Lets take "to have" which is мати. The base of the word is "ма" so now we will change the endings so someone in particular is having. I have - я маю You have (informal) - ти маєш He has - він має We have - ми маємо You guys have (or you formal have) - ви маєте They have - вони мають
There are 5 different ways to change these endings (depending on the verb)... But don't worry they're all pretty similar. You have encountered this
I want - я хочу You want - ти хочеш He wants - він хоче We want - ми хочемо You guys want - ви хочете They want - вони хочуть
Both the types of endings -у and -ю will sound very very similar so in spoken ukranian you probably wouldn't hear a difference. The same goes for -еш with -єш and so on! This makes it a little easier for a beginner.
As an exercise you could write out the forms of: казати - to say мати - to have спішити - to hurry любити - to love клеїти - to glue Then you would have all 5 different ways to end the verb. You only learn them once and you'll easily pick up which endings I guess (I've done 2 months of Ukranian so I'm still working on it)
Both Russian and Ukrainian холодний are transliterated as kholodnyi. Russian голодный is galodnyi. Ukrainian голодний is holodnyi. You see here 3 different sounds: "kh", "g" and "h". Sound "h" is absent in official Russian. Sound "g" is rare in official Ukrainian and is written with letter ґ.
Okay I can explain some. There are masculine, feminine, neuteral and plural nouns. Masculine ends in constanant. Feminine ends in -а or -я. Neuter end in -о. And plural usually end in -и (there are many of them).
E.g стол is masculine. Машина is feminine.
Theres the nominitive case: This is a car: це машина Here "машина" is in the nominitive case. We are just naming it.
And the accusitive case: I want a car: Я хочу машину Here "машина" is in the accusitive case and therefore changes its ending to -y. The accusitive case is where you do something to the thing. Here we are wanting the car.
The rule here is that feminine nouns change the ending from -а or -я to -у in the accusitive case. All other nouns do not change. So "це стол. Я хочу стол".
And you specifically asked about the case Genitive:
Genitive case is the equivalent of the posessive case in English. If a noun is in the genitive case it is posessing someone or something else.
There are many uses of the genitive case. The back of the chair: the chair owns the back. The 10th of August: August owns the day. Amber's birthday: Amber owns the birthday. Map of the city: the city owns the map. So here (in Ukranian) the chair, august, Amber, and the city will be in genitive case.
In genitive case:
feminine nouns will change their ending to -и or -і or -її.
Masculine and neuter nouns change ending to: -а or -я
Plural will change endings to -ів, -їїв, or drop the ending completely
And the last part of the answer. The dative case:
Dative case is used for the person or thing receiving something. This is for the receiver. So if i give (to) you a present, then you are in the dative case. If he gave a sweet to a boy: Він дав цукерку хлопчику. Here the boy хлопчику is in the dative case (he is receiving the sweet).
If you can write "to" in front of a noun in english, then you probably need to use the dative case in Ukranian. Its oddly called the dative case, it has nothing to do with dates and everything to do with givers and receivers ;) - so let's think of it as the dating tense instead. Where the person on the date is recieving chocolates!
In dating tense the endings are:
feminine nouns: -і or -її
Masculine and neuter nouns: -y or -ю
Plural end in: -ам or -ям
There's a fun an interesting addition to this: In the dating (giving chocolates to who?) case, there are two alternative endings for masculine nouns. You can choose to end them in -ові, -єві, and -евi if they are animate. So father can be батькові or ватьку in the dative case! You don't need to learn these, just to recognise them when used - its optional after all!