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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demon-Kiyomi

Japanese Lesson 33: Verbs part 5

It's a long-un folks! Sorry for the hiatus. I've been tired and busy. :)

Alright guys! We're going to finish up the present tense verb bubble today!!

<h1>Vocabulary</h1>

Tell: iu: いう: 言う (that's right, it's the same as "say")

Make: Tsukuru: つくる: 作る

Find: Mitsukeru: みつける: 見つける

Work: Hataraku: はたらく: 働く

Support: Sapo-to suru: サポートする
- Shien suru: しえんする: 支援する

Need: Hitsuyou: ひつよう: 必要

Know: Shiru: しる: 知る*

Take: Toru: とる: 取る - Motteikimasu: もっていきます: 持って行きます (to take; to carry something away)

Design: Dezain suru: デザインする
- sekkei shimasu: 設計します

Show: Miseru: みせる: 見せる

  • WATCH OUT! Shiru (know) and Suru (do) sound alike in certain conditions.

Shitte: 知って: Know (-te form) Shite: して: Do (-te form)

Shiru (know) conjugates a little differently too:

Present Positive: Shirimasu: しります: 知ります
Present Negative: Shirimasen: しりません: 知りません
Past Positive: Shirimashita: しりました: 知りました
Past Negative: Shirimasendeshita: しりませんでした: 知りませんでした
Command: Shitte: しって: 知って
Continuing Action: Shitteiru: しっている: 知っている

Here we go

<h1>Sentences</h1>

You work
Anata wa hatarakimasu
あなた は はたらきます
あなたは働きます。

I know
Watashi wa shitteimasu.
わたし は しっています。
私は知っています。

  • You'll most likely be using and hearing "know" in continuing action form almost exclusively. That's because like "have/own" and "raise" it's one of those things where if you KNOW something... you never stop doing that action.

I use it
Watashi wa sore o tsukaimasu.
わたし は それ を つかいます。
私はそれを使います。

We find
watashitachi wa mitsukemasu.
わたしたち は みつけます
私達は見つけます。

They make hats
Karera wa boushi o tsukurimasu.
かれら は ぼうし を つくります。
彼らhあ帽子を作ります。

Yes it rains
Hai, ame ga furimasu.
はい、あめ が ふります。
はい、雨が降ります。

I support him.
Watashi wa kare o shienshimasu.
わたし は かれ を しえんします。
私は彼を支援します。

I need you.
Watashi wa anata o hitsuyou to shimasu.
わたし は あなた を ひつよう と します。
私はあなたを必要とします。

  • Watashi wa anata ga hitsuyou da.
    わたし は あなた が ひつよう だ。
    私はあなたが必要だ。

NOTE: Okay so I'm going to stop us right here real quick. So the thing about hitsuyou. Hitsuyou itself is a noun, not a verb. So it will either need "da"/"desu" or "to suru" at the end.

If using "da"/"desu" you want to use your "ga" particle. We could go with my usual explanation that to "need" somethin isn't a physical verb you have control over. You can't control what you need or don't need. Therefore you would use the particle "ga".

DISCLAIMER: that may not be the actual reason you use the "ga" particle here but it works.

That being said, however. This noun CAN use the "o" particle in conjunction with the "suru" verb as well... well... suru needs to be "to suru" in this case. So take that as you will.

If using the particle "o" you want to use "to suru". Which I myself had to look up because I don't know what the "to" serves to do there.

"to suru" basically means "to consider" as in "to consider to be " in this case we're using the phrase "I need you", "Watashi wa anata o hitsuyou to shimasu"

First let's break off "watashi wa" so we can focus on the part of the sentence we'll be messing with. "Anata o hitsuyou to shimasu"

To set this up like a math problem we have: A o B to suru. A (particle) B to consider.

In English it would be flipped around to:
To consider A to be B

So in the case of our example sentence.
Anata o hitsuyou to shimasu. Anata is A
Hitsuyou is B so flipping this to the English direction it would read: To consider you to be needed.

Yeah? I know that's a little difficult to wrap your brain around. I sat here 10 minutes trying to figure out what was going on. here's the thread I picked it up from

Okay, let's continue.

They touch the bear
karera wa kuma o sawarimasu.
かれら は くま を さわります。
彼らは熊を触ります。

We take a newspaper.
Watashitachi wa shinbun o motteikimasu.
わたしたち は しんぶん を もっていきます。
私達は新聞を持っていきます。

  • Watashitachi wa shinbun o torimasu.
    わたしたち は しんぶん を とります。
    私達は新聞を取ります。

I design it.
Watashi wa sore o sekkei shimasu.
わたし は それ を せっけい します。
私はそれを設計します。

  • Watashi wa sore o dezain shimasu.
    わたし は それ を デザイン します。
    私はそれをデザインします。

I need water.
Watashi wa mizu o hitsuyou to shimasu.
わたし は みず を ひつよう と します。
私は水を必要とします。

  • watashi wa mizu ga hitsuyou da.
    わたし は みず が ひつよう だ。
    私は水が必要だ。

The boys touch the plate.
Shounen wa sara o sawarimasu.
しょうねん は さら を さわります。
少年は皿を触ります。

I show them.
Watashi wa karera o misemasu.
わたし は かれら を みせます。
私は彼らを見せます。

BONUS:
To lead someone along: Tsureteiku: つれていく: 連れて行く

I take them
Watashi wa karera o tsureteikimasu.
私は彼らを連れて行きます。

Well okay... that was a sort of random sentence for me to run across. :/

Next Lesson

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First Lesson

Table of Contents

Until next lesson! :D

June 27, 2015

17 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MeltingPsychic

Good to see you back!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Neco_Coneco

Can you post about particles, like node, kara, deshou & other forms, kana & and other forms, and other confusing particles? Thank you very much. :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demon-Kiyomi

Node and Kara are coming up pretty soon in the compound sentences lesson. I'm sure we'll hit "deshou" somewhere down the line too... I haven't hit it yet though (I'm also going through the reverse tree)

Otherwise I'm trying to cover particles as we go and clear up their different meanings and usages... so I'm not sure what you mean by "confusing particles" exactly... But I'll do my best!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zaffron34

I'm sure Demon-Kiyomi will certainly help you with any questions regarding Japanese (all his posts are absolutely amazing). Though I can also suggest using Jgram for anything regarding Japanese grammar as well. Node: http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewOne.php?tagE=node Kara (because): http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewOne.php?tagE=kara Kara (From/Since): http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewOne.php?tagE=kara-2 There are example sentences as well. :) Hope this may help in some way.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Herr-General

How about creating a Japanese course on DL? I'm sure folks would love that.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demon-Kiyomi

This is as close as I can get. I've applied to help the DL team on the English → Japanese tree when they get to that point but that will still be a while. If I'm even among the team when that happens. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/draquila

You use が because ひつよう is a na-adjective that is being linked to the subject of the sentence. It's like 好き or ほしい, Literally "X is necessary."

What is the difference between ひつよう and いる? Obviously one is an adjective and the other is a verb, but aside from that?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demon-Kiyomi

Ooh. :D Thank you for that!! ^_^ ha. See I didn't even know Hitsuyou was a na adjective.

Personally I've only ever seen iru as either an addition to the -te form (making it continuing action) or used as "exists"/"is" "am" "are" for living things. So I'm not sure on that one. o_o Good question.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/draquila

My Japanese vocabulary is actually quite lacking, and my kanji knowledge is even worse, so I use a browser plug-in called Rikaisama that gives mouse-over definitions and happens to include parts of speech. However, I believe the explanation would be the same even if it were a noun, because です functions as a copula.

I hadn't actually seen ひつよう before, I've always seen いる used for "need." But it's different from the いる you're thinking of, being an う-verb.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demon-Kiyomi

-stops being lazy and turns on rikaichan- ... ... hmm... would you look at that. I also use Rikachan, (I have firefox so it's got a different name) I use it for new vocabulary words and such on the reverse tree. I'm alright with Kanji, but I can only understand about 1/4 of everything I read or hear. XD That's because I too am lacking in a lot of vocabulary.

Hey the explanation is all good to me. (-doesn't even know what a copula is-) Parts of speech scare me. XD I have no idea how I manage.

I find it really interesting that the both of us are familiar with different synonyms. That's pretty awesome that the both of us have only come across one form of the word.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Pratyush.

Thanks for making notes. : )


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/akira0eigo

新聞を取る には 新聞を購読(こうどく)するという意味があります。 →subscription for paperで、あってるかな?英語には自信がないけど(-_-;)

同じ 取る を使って ピザを取る ソバを取る すしを取る ラーメンを取る カツ丼を取る

などのようにデリバリー(食べ物の宅配)を頼むときにも使います。

店で買って持ち帰るときはテイクアウトです。

電話にでる と言う意味で 電話を取る も使います。

prrrrrr A:電話が鳴ってる!今手が離せないの!だれか出て!

B:僕が 取るよ(出るよ)! prr A:取った?

B:ううん、切れちゃった。

A::そう、誰だったんだろう?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demon-Kiyomi

はい。英語が上手です。大丈夫よ!私も日本語には自信がない。( ;)/~
後で全てのコメントを答える。しかし、今、コメントを読みます。
今日はとても忙しい!アァァァァァァァァー
... my honorifics are all over the place... x_x

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