"What caused the pain in my right foot?"
Translation:Kio kaŭzis la doloron en mia dekstra piedo?
Yes and no. Usually, you'd have to use mia for mine. However, in the notes, they show:
Doloras al mi la kapo. OR "La kapo doloras al mi. OR Doloras min la kapo. OR La kapo doloras min. My head hurts. (Head is the subject)
So in some situations, they show la [bodypart] as my [bodypart]. But, it appears to only happen with the verb dolori. (And with al [pronoun] or with [pronoun]-n elsewhere in the sentence so you know whose bodypart is hurting.)
Since this sentence isn't using the verb dolori but rather the noun dololo, it looks like it should be mia piedo.
It is also possible to say: "Kio kaŭzis al mi la doloron en la dekstra piedo". In this case, the "al mi" makes it clear who "la piedo" belongs to.