"Yesterday we cooked borshch."
Translation:Вчора ми готували борщ.
That would mean there is emphasis on учора so I guess the two sentences wouldn't be exactly equivalent.
Ukrainian word order is not the easiest topic, but as far as I can tell, adverbs are only put at the end of the sentence if they are the most important part of the message. As for temporal adverbs, this is quite common when discussing future plans like ми їдемо у Київ завтра (could also be завтра ми їдемо у Київ or ми завтра їдемо у Київ if the trip itself is more important).